Intensive directional selection for a trait can increase developmental instability and impose selection against genetic modifiers that reduce the development of extreme phenotypes in a range of species including chickens (Parsons, 1992; Yang and Siegel, 1998).
Developmental instability may provide reliable information about the ability of individuals and populations to cope with their environment given their genetic setup.
The degree of asymmetry in feather replacement may be considered a reliable measure of developmental instability
of avian molt.
2003), is widely used to estimate developmental instability in populations in specific environments (Palmer 1994, Vollestad et al.
Heterozygosity was first suggested to be negatively related to developmental instability (and thus FA) by Lerner (1954).
Developmental instability analysis of BKD-infected spring Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, prior to seawater exposure.
Directional asymmetry and the measurement of developmental instability.
Fluctuating asymmetry refers to random deviations from perfect symmetry and is a measure of developmental instability
We also used fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of shell weight as an indicator of developmental instability and thus of microbially-induced physiological stress in oysters.
Increase in developmental instability (DI) due to variety of environmental and intrinsic stressors, including parasitic and bacterial diseases, has been reported in various animal populations (review in: Polak 1997, Moller & Swaddle 1997, Hoffmann & Woods 2003), where it is most often measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the random variation in the difference between right and left sides of bilateral traits (Palmer & Strobeck 1986).
vulnificus infection leads to an elevated level of developmental instability in an oyster population, which would indicate parasite-induced physiological stress.
In general, therefore, infection of either pathogen does not seem to be affecting developmental instability (as measured by FA in valve weights) in this population of oysters.