Deviation

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deviation

[‚dēv·ē′ā·shən]
(engineering)
The difference between the actual value of a controlled variable and the desired value corresponding to the set point.
(evolution)
Evolutionary differentiation involving interpolation of new stages in the ancestral pattern of morphogenesis.
(optics)
The angle between the incident ray on an object or optical system and the emergent ray, following reflection, refraction, or diffraction. Also known as angle of deviation.
(petroleum engineering)
During a drilling operation, the inclination of the borehole from the vertical.
(statistics)
The difference between any given number in a set and the mean average of those numbers.

Deviation

 

in artillery, an accidental phenomenon not allowed for in the laws of dispersion, by which shells (bullets) veer away from the mean trajectory expected under the given firing conditions. Causes of deviation may be the mechanical disruption of the movement of the shell in the bore (for example, separation of the shell from the rifling grooves) or in the air (for example, a defect in the stabilizer fins or other parts), as well as a chance sharp change in weather conditions during the flight of the shell.


Deviation

 

in biology, a variety of phylembryogenesis in which a change in the development of an organ arises in the middle stages of its formation and results in a change in the structure of the organ in the adult organism, compared with the same organ in its ancestors. For example, in the middle stages of development the epidermal part of the scale buds of reptiles undergoes keratinization, not ossification (as in sharks). The term “deviation” was introduced by the German scientist F. Müller (1864).


Deviation

 

the most common measure of dispersion, that is, deviation from the mean, in mathematical statistics and theory of probability. In the statistical sense, deviation

is the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations of the values Xi from their arithmetic mean

In the theory of probability the deviation (variance) of a random variable X is called the expected value E(X - mx)2 of the square of the deviation of X from its expected value mx =E(X). The deviation of a random variable X is denoted by D(X) or by σ2). The square root of the deviation (that is, if the deviation is σ2) is called standard deviation.

For a random variable X with continuous probability distribution, characterized by probability density p(x), deviation is calculated by the formula

where

The following theorem has great significance in the theory of probability: the deviation of the sum of independent terms is equal to the sum of their deviations. No less important is Chebyshev’s inequality, which allows us to evaluate the probability of large deviations of the random variable X from its expected value.

REFERENCE

Gnedenko, B. V. Kurs teorii veroiatnostei, 5th ed. Moscow, 1969.

deviation

deviation
deviation
i. The angular difference between a magnetic and a compass heading. It is a compass error caused by the compass magnet attempting to align with the aircraft's local magnetic field. The deviation error changes with the aircraft heading and the latitude. It is measured in degrees east (+) or west (−), depending on whether the north-seeking end of the compass needle lies to the east or west of magnetic north.
ii. The angle between the wind and the pressure gradient.
iii. In frequency modulation, the amount the carrier increases or decreases when modulated.
vi A departure from a current clearance, such as an off-course maneuver, to avoid bad weather or turbulence.
v A variation from set rules and regulations. Where specifically authorized in the regulation and requested by the pilot, ATC (air traffic control) may permit pilots to deviate from certain regulations.
vi. In flight, a sudden excursion from the normal flight path.
vii. The distance by which a weapon misses its target.
References in periodicals archive ?
Since it is handcrafted in North Carolina, The Deviate is a limited edition item, but pre-orders are now being accepted exclusively in Madvapes stores or at Madvapes.
Gresov (1989) demonstrated that firms deliberately deviate from ideal designs when facing multiple, often conflicting contingencies.
The paper shows that cooperation is much harder to sustain when both the union and the firm can deviate as compared to the case where only the firm can deviate.
Hirschi suggested that persons who strongly believe in the these norms are less likely to deviate from them.
When cave explorer Juno (Natalie Mendoza) decides to deviate from the group's planned itinerary, the six women find trouble lurking below the surface in ``The Descent.
More thrilling would be a result that deviates from the predictions.
Lawrence and Garner were engaged "in deviate sexual conduct, namely, anal sex," according to police records, and were immediately handcuffed and taken to the police station.
Between September 25th and October 8th in the East End area of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, six women (ages 14 to 33) were assaulted by a violent deviate who would approach them from behind while they were walking, try to make conversation, threaten them (in most instances) with a firearm, then sexually assault (or attempt to assault) them.
Work is ongoing to study the dependence of the response on the thickness of the film to find when the response of the surface might deviate markedly from the interior due to eddy currents.
And that the totality of his peculiar exterior manifestations were nothing more than interpretive modifications of liturgical acts or of the sacred cult, and in them he did not deviate one whit from the purest orthodoxy.
DHS- and DoD-Funded Technology Has Been Used in Mission-Critical Networks for 2+ Years; CounterStorm's Statistical Payload Analysis (SPA) Engine Detects Application Exploits that Deviate From the Normal Content Profile to Protect Against Politically and Criminally Motivated Targeted Attacks
When someone creates false transactions or commits a data-entry error, the resulting numbers often deviate from the law's expectations.