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hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex in humans and vertebrate animals. Glucocorticoids are steroids and are characterized by the presence of HO— or Glucocorticoids at the 11th and 17th carbohydrate atoms. Formation of glucocorticoids is .stimulated by the adrenocorticotropic hormone secreted by the pituitary gland.

The principal glucocorticoids are hydrocortisone (cortisol) and cortisone. Glucocorticoids exert influence on carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, promote the formation of glucose and the synthesis of glycogen from proteins in the liver (gluconeogenesis), and retard the biosynthesis of high-molecular-weight fatty acids. Absence of glucocorticoids lowers the body’s resistance. During the action of unfavorable factors (trauma, blood loss, and some other states of stress), secretion of glucocorticoids increases. Glucocorticoids decrease the permeability of the capillaries and decelerate the development of allergic inflammations. Glucocorticoids and a number of their synthetic analogues (prednisone, prednisolone, and dexamethasone) are used in medicine as anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs, since they retard protein synthesis and accelerate its decomposition. Their prolonged use is contraindicated because the body develops a negative nitrogen balance and the healing of wounds, ulcers, and so on is retarded. In children, delayed development and cessation of growth are observed with prolonged use of these hormones. A number of glucocorticoids and their synthetic derivatives possess to some degree the properties of mineral corticoids: they cause retention of sodium in the tissues and hypokalemia.


Iudaev, N. A. “Svoistva, funktsii i obmen steroidnykh gormonov kory nadpochechnikov.” In Khimicheskie osnovy protsessov zhiznedeiatel’nosti. Moscow, 1962.
Berzin, T. Biokhimiia gormonov. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from German.)
Leites, S. M., and N. N. Lapteva. Ocherki po patofiziologii obmena veshchestv i endokrinnoi sistemy. Moscow, 1967.


References in periodicals archive ?
Because of the high risk of relapse, it is essential that patients receive long-term postoperative follow-up for disease recurrence through expert clinical evaluation and biochemical assessment of hypercortisolism, including the use of dexamethasone suppression (1).
Since genital virilization is itself not an illness requiring medical intervention, and society does not generally endorse using off-label medications to alter the shape of medically healthy fetal body parts, why is it that bioethicists' central criticism of administering dexamethasone is that its use lacks IRB oversight?
Although EGCG is effective for antidiabetic activities in animal models, the effect of EGCG on skeletal muscle cells with insulin resistance under dexamethasone condition and its underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated.
A 20-fold excess of unlabeled dexamethasone was used to determine unspecific binding.
The study which was an open-label randomized controlled trial on Lenalidomide plus high-dose dexamethasone versus lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone as initial therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma was funded by the US National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD.
All participants were randomised to take tadalifil, dexamethasone or placebo, beginning the day before a cable-car ascent from Alagna, Italy, at 1,100 meters (3,609 feet), to 3,200 meters (10,499 feet).
9,10) Our patients who were experiencing acute symptoms were offered the additional option of undergoing middle ear perfusion with dexamethasone delivered via the Silverstein MicroWick system.
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) was higher in preterm infants who received betamethasone than in those who received dexamethasone in an intent-to-treat analysis of 299 women, Dr.
Both Acetazolamide and/or Dexamethasone starting 12-24 hours before high altitude exposure and continued three to four days prevent sickness.
More than 40 years ago, dexamethasone was used in patients with brain tumors, and it is still used today.
Human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-8 was used to compare the effects of genistein and dexamethasone on cytokine expression.
MIAMI -- A dexamethasone suppression test can identify patients at increased risk of suicide, according to a follow-up study presented at the annual conference of the American Association of Suicidology.