Diabetes Mellitus


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Related to Diabetes Mellitus: diabetes insipidus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetes mellitus type 2

diabetes mellitus

[‚dī·ə′bēd·ēz ′mel·ə·dəs]
(medicine)
A metabolic disorder arising from a defect in carbohydrate utilization by the body, related to inadequate or abnormal insulin production by the pancreas.

Diabetes Mellitus

 

a chronic disease characterized by all kinds of metabolic disorders, chiefly carbohydrate, caused by the absolute or (more often) relative deficiency of the pancreatic hormone, insulin.

Heredity plays a major role in the origin of functional insufficiency of the islands of Langerhans of the pancreas, which produce insulin; the functional insufficiency may result from a trauma, inflammation, sclereosis of the pancreatic vessels, infections, intoxication, psychological trauma, excessive consumption of carbohydrates, and overeating in general. The functional condition of the other endocrine glands—the pituitary, adrenals, thyroid, and so forth—and the central and autonomic nervous systems is another factor. Because of the insulin deficiency the liver and muscles become unable to convert sugar into glycogen, and all the tissues lose their capacity to oxidize sugar and use it as an energy source. Moreover, glyconeogenesis also takes place —that is, sugar is formed from proteins and fats. As a result, sugar accumulates in the blood—to as much as 0.2-0.4 g per 100 milliliters of blood or more (hyperglycemia). When the amount of sugar in the blood is more than 0.18 g (“kidney threshold”), some of the sugar in the renal tubules is not reabsorbed and is excreted in the urine (glycosuria).

In more severe cases, liver function weakens, glycogen ceases to be synthesized and accumulates, and the products of protein and fat decomposition are no longer rendered harmless. As a result, a substantial quantity of ketone bodies, especially acetoacetic and /3- hydroxybutyric acids appear in the blood and then in the urine. The accumulation of these acids disturbs the acid-base equilibrium, causing acidosis. Acidosis may result in a diabetic coma.

Diabetes mellitus patients suffer from an intensified appetite and thirst (hunger and thirst may not be very intense in mild cases), increased excretion of urine (up to 5–8 liters a day) with a high specific gravity, itching of the skin and external genitalia, inflammation of the oral mucosa, pain along the nerve trunks (polyneuritis), and muscular and sexual weakness. The menstrual cycle is disturbed in women; spontaneous abortions or stillbirths may occur in pregnant women. The blood cholesterol level rises in diabetics, promoting the early onset of atherosclerosis, which is often combined with hypertonia. Marked changes in the cardiovascular system, kidneys, and eyes are among the serious complications of diabetes mellitus.

Treatment is individualized, taking into account the specific metabolic disorder. In mild forms, a special diet is prescribed, taking into account individual energy expenditures, and exercise therapy (especially for obese persons); in some cases, sugar-reducing sulfanilamide preparations (which are particularly effective in elderly persons with a tendency toward obesity) are prescribed. In moderate and severe forms insulin therapy is undertaken; long-acting insulin preparations with a sugar-reducing action are used to prolong the action of insulin.

REFERENCES

Genes, S. G. Sakharnyi diabet, 5th ed. Moscow, 1963. (Bibliography.)
Diabet, edited by R. Williams. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English; bibliography.)

L. M. GOL’BER

References in periodicals archive ?
The majority of those described with idiopathic type 1 diabetes have what has been termed atypical diabetes mellitus (ADM, type 1.
Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Moss JR, McPhee AJ, Jeffries WS, Robinson JS, Australian Carbohydrate Intolerance Study in Pregnant Women (ACHOIS) Trial Group: Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes.
American Diabetes Association: Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus.
Demographic and biochemical characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus and control group are summarized in Table 1.
Although still speculative, the application of glycohemoglobin measurements to the diagnosis and/or screening of diabetes mellitus will link diagnosis, long-term monitoring, and monitoring the efficacy of therapy.
2) As weight increases, so does the risk for many medical problems, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, osteoarthritis, hypertension, and gallbladder disease.
2) Whatever the age at which diabetes mellitus is diagnosed, the patient may live a reasonably normal life.
A county jail inmate brought a [section] 1983 action alleging that correctional officers, the jail's contract doctor, and the county were deliberately indifferent to his need for a special diet and medication to treat his diabetes mellitus.
Medical conditions, including diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, cancer, stroke with any associated paresis and immobility, should be maximally assessed and controlled.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or type I diabetes, occurs when an autoimmune reaction leads to the death of insulin-secreting islet cells in the pancreas.
They depend on insulin therapy to sustain life (b) Non-sulin dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM (type II).
Diabetes Mellitus is identified by hyperglycaemia and disturbances of the carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism which are associated with absolute or relative deficiencies in insulin secretion.

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