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(1) A set of methods of linguistics intended for the analysis of the historical development of a language.

(2) The corresponding area of general linguistics, which is opposed to synchrony. According to F. de Saussure, the subject of diachronic linguistics is the relations that connect elements in a historical sequence that is not perceived by one and the same collective consciousness—the elements replacing one another but not forming a system. The subject of synchronic linguistics is the logical and psychological relations that connect coexisting elements and form a system (how these elements are perceived by one and the same collective consciousness). C. Bally accepted Saussure’s view of synchrony and diachrony. The majority of linguists, while accepting the opposition of synchrony and diachrony itself, reject its absoluteness (the Swiss scholar A. Sechahaye, the Belgian scholar E. Buyssens, E. Coseriu). N. S. Trubetzkoy, R. O. Jakobson, and others, following Baudouin de Courtenay, believe that diachronic study does not exclude the concept of system and that synchronic description cannot entirely exclude the concept of evolution. Most modern linguists share this opinion. From the very beginning, the categorical nature of the opposition of synchrony and diachrony has been alien to Russian linguists, although this opposition is, in itself, justified as a methodological technique.


O sootnoshenii sinkhronnogo analiza i istoricheskogo izucheniia iazykov. Moscow, 1960.
Saussure, F. de. Kurs obshchei lingvistiki. Moscow, 1933. (Translated from French.)
Coseriu, E. “Sinkhroniia, diakhroniia i istoriia.” In the collection Novoe v linqvistike, issue 3. Moscow, 1963.
Budagov, R. A. Problemy razvitiia iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. Izbrannye trudy po obshchemu iazykoznaniiu, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1963. (Translated from French.)


References in periodicals archive ?
The synchronic money pump strips away the dramatic device of exploitation to reveal the core defect allegedly demonstrated by the original diachronic version; but the standard objections to the latter can likewise be stripped of the drama to target that core directly.
3) DCPSE: The Diachronic Corpus of Present-Day Spoken English is a new parsed corpus of spoken English available on CD-ROM.
Another somewhat related issue, not mentioned by Lestrade himself, is whether a diachronic map should represent the number of languages in which the diachronic change presumed to be responsible for a synchronic pattern has actually been historically observed.
Implicit in the Diachronic personality's attachment to continuity of self (the self's persistence in time--look Ma, it's still me) there would seem to be a tendency to adopt a narrative mode of self-representation, just as implicit in the Episodic personality's commitment to a kind of punctuated-equilibrium conception of the self (the self lacks durability and persistence--not there yesterday, but here today and gone tomorrow--though a human being with the self's name will stay the course), there would seem to be a tendency to eschew Narrative discourse and to adopt a non-Narrative mode of self-representation (if any).
They note that morphological productivity is not only a theoretical concept but a measurable property of word-formation rules, and thus they establish a theoretical basis for viewing productivity from a diachronic perspective.
She does not appear to understand the distinction between diachronic sound-changes and synchronic sound-correspondences, and, apparently, as a result she completely ignores the very diachronic basis of the Comparative Method.
Chapter 1 offers a brief yet rather detailed introduction to the concepts of language variation from both a synchronic and a diachronic perspective.
More interested in highlighting the relative strengths and weaknesses of various "perspectives" than in writing a purely diachronic history of theories, Bell traces the genealogy of three broad methodological approaches: (1) those seeking the origins and/or essence of ritual; (2) functionalists and structuralists; and (3) culturalists, including symbolists, linguists, "performance" theorists, and most recently, the "practice" theorists who have most deeply influenced Bell's own approach.
But it does seem to put some intrinsic epistemic value on my maintaining diachronic coherence or stability of belief.
She provides a comprehensive review of diachronic and synchronic analyses for the qaf and presents competing approaches for its presence in modern dialects of Arabic.
Studies of diachronic and synchronic variation in the Bengali language reveal cross-cutting dimensions: (1) linguistic indexing of religio-communal identities, and (2) diglossia.