dialogue


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dialogue

1 (often US), dialog
1. the lines spoken by characters in drama or fiction
2. a particular passage of conversation in a literary or dramatic work
3. a literary composition in the form of a dialogue
4. a political discussion between representatives of two nations or groups

dialogue

2, dialog box
Computing a window that may appear on a VDU display to prompt the user to enter further information or select an option

Dialogue

 

(1) A type of speech characterized by the situation (dependence on the circumstances of the conversation), the context (conditioned by preceding utterances), nonarbitrariness, and to a slight degree, by its organization (not planned ahead of time). Dialogue may be contrasted with monologue.

(2) A functional variety of language that is realized in direct communication between the conversationalists and that consists of a sequential alternation of stimulating and reacting utterances. Among the principal linguistic characteristics of dialogue are abundant interrogatory and arousing sentences among the stimulating utterances, repetition and reinterrogations in the reacting utterances, and syntactical incompleteness of the reacting utterances, compensated for at the expense of the previous utterance. Compare the interrogatory utterances: “But how should I know?” “But do I know?” and “Why should I know?” All of these are equivalent to the negative answer “I don’t know.”

Literature and the theater. The characteristics of artistically treated dialogue are connected with the type and genre of the art form. In epic prose the dialogue is directly related to the author’s speech, moving and controlling the narration, and often accompanied by the author’s descriptive or evaluating commentary. Prose did not immediately attain an organic merger of narration and dialogue. The latter was initially wedged into the author’s speech in the form of dramatized fragments (for example, in 18th-century Russian prose, N. M. Karamzin’s novella Natalia, the Boyar’s Daughter).

The 19th-century realists mastered the methods of the natural inclusion of dialogue into the narrative. In their works dialogue, as well as the author’s descriptions, acquired a very important role in the depiction of characters, and expressiveness and elements of social and individual color were widely introduced into it. In F. M. Dostoevsky’s novels, dialogue has a special structural and ideological significance as a means by which a character reveals himself (see M. Bakhtin, Problemy poetiki Dostoevskogo, 1963). In 20th-century prose E. Hemingway created a new form of poetically taut dialogue with a certain degree of stylization and a stress on the implication of the utterances.

In drama, dialogue is the basic means of depicting the characters and developing the plot. It is distinguished from dialogue in prose by the necessary quality of action, purposeful explication of the conflicting relations among the characters, and orientation to oral, stage presentation. Dramatic dialogue (in addition to stage directions) assumes the descriptive and explanatory functions of the author’s speech. As drama developed, dialogue attained the predominant place as opposed to monologue, which had dominated the structure of the ancient tragedies. Essentially, the structure of dialogue changed from the “dialogue-like monologues” spoken by the heroes of classical plays. It became increasingly natural and was saturated with an unspoken “theme underneath the text,” which moved the action. In A. P. Chekhov’s plays the dialogue is enriched by a series of lyrical themes that unite the utterances internally. Dialogue as a means of developing dramatic action is the basis of theatrical art.

“Dialogue” also refers to an independent literary-publicistic genre that was already developed in antiquity (Plato’s philosophical dialogues and Lucian’s satirical dialogues), and later during the Reformation and the Enlightenment (for example, Diderot’s Le Neveu de Rameau). In Russia, V. G. Belinskii used the publicistic dialogue form.

REFERENCES

Iakubinskii, L. I. “O dialogicheskoi rechi.” In Russkaia rech’: Sb. Statei, vol. 1. Petrograd, 1923.
Vinokur, T. G. “O nekotorykh syntaksicheskikh osobennostiakh dialogicheskoi rechi.” In Issledovaniia po grammatike russkogo literaturnogo iazyka. Moscow, 1955.
Shvedova, N. Iu. Ocherki po sintaksisu russkoi razgovornoi rechi. Moscow, 1960. Pages 280–352.
Voloshinov, V. N. Marksizm i filosofiia iazyka. Moscow, 1930.
Vinogradov, V. V. O khudozhestvennoi proze. Moscow-Leningrad, 1930.
Vol’kenshtein, V. M. Dramaturgiia. Moscow, 1960.

N. D. ARUTIUNOVA and M. OMAROVA

References in classic literature ?
Yes," assented Emma Jane, "it is, of course; with your name on the board, and our pointing to your flag, and our elergant dialogue, and all that.
Without appearing to have heard the dialogue, of which she had not lost a word, she began again, giving to her voice all the charm, all the power, all the seduction the demon had bestowed upon it:
But some of the opinions uttered on this occasion--always in the mesmeritic manner, be it remembered--will be seen in the following dialogue.
Nay, Elizabeth, you must bear with my ignorance, and I will repeat all that I remember to have overheard for the dialogue was between my father and the sheriff, so lately as the last time they met, He then added that the kings of England used to keep gentlemen as agents among the different tribes of Indians, and sometimes officers in the army, who frequently passed half their lives on the edge of the wilderness.
Acting in song, especially in dialogues, hath an extreme good grace; I say acting, not dancing (for that is a mean and vulgar thing); and the voices of the dialogue would be strong and manly (a base and a tenor; no treble); and the ditty high and tragical; not nice or dainty.
In an early dialogue of Plato's, the Protagoras, Socrates asks Protagoras why it is not as easy to find teachers of virtue as it is to find teachers of swordsmanship, riding, or any other art.
You answer for the characters and the dialogue,' Francis repeated.
A reader of words of wind-demons might have been able to see the portions of a dialogue pass to and fro between the exhorter and his hearers.
Every other Friday afternoon she has recitations and everybody has to say a piece or take part in a dialogue.
This Dialogue begins abruptly with a question of Meno, who asks, 'whether virtue can be taught.
But no other Dialogue of Plato has the same largeness of view and the same perfection of style; no other shows an equal knowledge of the world, or contains more of those thoughts which are new as well as old, and not of one age only but of all.
A dialogue between Mesdames Bridget and Deborah; containing more amusement, but less instruction, than the former.