dialogue

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dialogue

1 (often US), dialog
1. the lines spoken by characters in drama or fiction
2. a particular passage of conversation in a literary or dramatic work
3. a literary composition in the form of a dialogue
4. a political discussion between representatives of two nations or groups

dialogue

2, dialog box
Computing a window that may appear on a VDU display to prompt the user to enter further information or select an option

Dialogue

 

(1) A type of speech characterized by the situation (dependence on the circumstances of the conversation), the context (conditioned by preceding utterances), nonarbitrariness, and to a slight degree, by its organization (not planned ahead of time). Dialogue may be contrasted with monologue.

(2) A functional variety of language that is realized in direct communication between the conversationalists and that consists of a sequential alternation of stimulating and reacting utterances. Among the principal linguistic characteristics of dialogue are abundant interrogatory and arousing sentences among the stimulating utterances, repetition and reinterrogations in the reacting utterances, and syntactical incompleteness of the reacting utterances, compensated for at the expense of the previous utterance. Compare the interrogatory utterances: “But how should I know?” “But do I know?” and “Why should I know?” All of these are equivalent to the negative answer “I don’t know.”

Literature and the theater. The characteristics of artistically treated dialogue are connected with the type and genre of the art form. In epic prose the dialogue is directly related to the author’s speech, moving and controlling the narration, and often accompanied by the author’s descriptive or evaluating commentary. Prose did not immediately attain an organic merger of narration and dialogue. The latter was initially wedged into the author’s speech in the form of dramatized fragments (for example, in 18th-century Russian prose, N. M. Karamzin’s novella Natalia, the Boyar’s Daughter).

The 19th-century realists mastered the methods of the natural inclusion of dialogue into the narrative. In their works dialogue, as well as the author’s descriptions, acquired a very important role in the depiction of characters, and expressiveness and elements of social and individual color were widely introduced into it. In F. M. Dostoevsky’s novels, dialogue has a special structural and ideological significance as a means by which a character reveals himself (see M. Bakhtin, Problemy poetiki Dostoevskogo, 1963). In 20th-century prose E. Hemingway created a new form of poetically taut dialogue with a certain degree of stylization and a stress on the implication of the utterances.

In drama, dialogue is the basic means of depicting the characters and developing the plot. It is distinguished from dialogue in prose by the necessary quality of action, purposeful explication of the conflicting relations among the characters, and orientation to oral, stage presentation. Dramatic dialogue (in addition to stage directions) assumes the descriptive and explanatory functions of the author’s speech. As drama developed, dialogue attained the predominant place as opposed to monologue, which had dominated the structure of the ancient tragedies. Essentially, the structure of dialogue changed from the “dialogue-like monologues” spoken by the heroes of classical plays. It became increasingly natural and was saturated with an unspoken “theme underneath the text,” which moved the action. In A. P. Chekhov’s plays the dialogue is enriched by a series of lyrical themes that unite the utterances internally. Dialogue as a means of developing dramatic action is the basis of theatrical art.

“Dialogue” also refers to an independent literary-publicistic genre that was already developed in antiquity (Plato’s philosophical dialogues and Lucian’s satirical dialogues), and later during the Reformation and the Enlightenment (for example, Diderot’s Le Neveu de Rameau). In Russia, V. G. Belinskii used the publicistic dialogue form.

REFERENCES

Iakubinskii, L. I. “O dialogicheskoi rechi.” In Russkaia rech’: Sb. Statei, vol. 1. Petrograd, 1923.
Vinokur, T. G. “O nekotorykh syntaksicheskikh osobennostiakh dialogicheskoi rechi.” In Issledovaniia po grammatike russkogo literaturnogo iazyka. Moscow, 1955.
Shvedova, N. Iu. Ocherki po sintaksisu russkoi razgovornoi rechi. Moscow, 1960. Pages 280–352.
Voloshinov, V. N. Marksizm i filosofiia iazyka. Moscow, 1930.
Vinogradov, V. V. O khudozhestvennoi proze. Moscow-Leningrad, 1930.
Vol’kenshtein, V. M. Dramaturgiia. Moscow, 1960.

N. D. ARUTIUNOVA and M. OMAROVA

References in classic literature ?
Yes," assented Emma Jane, "it is, of course; with your name on the board, and our pointing to your flag, and our elergant dialogue, and all that.
Nor is there any trace in the Dialogues of an attempt to make Anytus or Meletus personally odious in the eyes of the Athenian public.
Characteristic also of the temper of the Socratic enquiry is, (4) the proposal to discuss the teachableness of virtue under an hypothesis, after the manner of the mathematicians; and (5) the repetition of the favourite doctrine which occurs so frequently in the earlier and more Socratic Dialogues, and gives a colour to all of them--that mankind only desire evil through ignorance; (6) the experiment of eliciting from the slave-boy the mathematical truth which is latent in him, and (7) the remark that he is all the better for knowing his ignorance.
He was not quite so certain of the callings and stations of two smart young ladies who were in conversation with the fat lady before the fire, until--having sat himself down in a corner, and remarked that he would wait until the other customers had been served--the fat lady resumed the dialogue which his entrance had interrupted.
Becky used to go through dialogues with it; it formed the delight of Newman Street, Gerrard Street, and the Artists' quarter: and the young painters, when they came to take their gin-and-water with their lazy, dissolute, clever, jovial senior, used regularly to ask Rebecca if Miss Pinkerton was at home: she was as well known to them, poor soul
To the morality of a Western reader an account of these meetings would wear perhaps the sinister character of old legendary tales where the Enemy of Mankind is represented holding subtly mendacious dialogues with some tempted soul.
When left alone, she seems very happy if she have her knitting or sewing, and will busy herself for hours; if she have no occupation, she evidently amuses herself by imaginary dialogues, or by recalling past impressions; she counts with her fingers, or spells out names of things which she has recently learned, in the manual alphabet of the deaf mutes.
In these matrimonial dialogues they never addressed each other, but always some invisible presence that appeared to take a station about midway between them.
Every time this door was opened to let a party out, the next party made a violent rush to get in; and, as in addition to the numerous dialogues which passed between the gentlemen who were waiting to see the judge, a variety of personal squabbles ensued between the greater part of those who had seen him, there was as much noise as could well be raised in an apartment of such confined dimensions.
She read on and on in the old book, devouring eagerly the dialogues with the invisible Teacher, the pattern of sorrow, the source of all strength; returning to it after she had been called away, and reading till the sun went down behind the willows.
besides several compositions in prose, purporting to be dialogues between the Emperor of China and an oyster, or the Archbishop of Canterbury and a dissenter on the subject of church-rates, but all having the same moral, namely, that the reader must make haste to Jarley's, and that children and servants were admitted at half-price.
Decidedly, there was a new tang about this dialogue.