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Related to diarrheal: diarrhoea, Diaria


(dīərē`ə), frequent discharge of watery feces from the intestines, sometimes containing blood and mucus. It can be caused by excessive indulgence in alcohol or other liquids or foods that prove irritating to the stomach or intestine, by allergy to certain food products, by poisoning with heavy metals, by chemicals such as are found in cathartics, by hyperactivity of the nervous system, and by infection with a virus (intestinal grippe) or with bacteria or their toxins. Diarrhea is a concomitant of many infectious diseases, especially typhoid fevertyphoid fever
acute, generalized infection caused by Salmonella typhi. The main sources of infection are contaminated water or milk and, especially in urban communities, food handlers who are carriers.
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, bacillary or amebic dysenterydysentery
, inflammation of the intestine characterized by the frequent passage of feces, usually with blood and mucus. The two most common causes of dysentery are infection with a bacillus (see bacteria) of the Shigella group, and infestation by an ameba,
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, and choleracholera
or Asiatic cholera,
acute infectious disease caused by strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that have been infected by bacteriophages. The bacteria, which are found in fecal-contaminated food and water and in raw or undercooked seafood, produce a
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. Persistent diarrhea may result in severe dehydration and shock. It is therefore necessary to replace the fluid lost by the body. Treatment is with a bland diet and drugs that will decrease the activity of the intestines, as well as with specific measures directed at the underlying cause. The elderly are at especially high risk for diarrheal deaths caused by viruses. Ulcerative colitis is an inflamatory and ulcerative disease of the colon, properly described as "irritable bowl," and characterized by bloody diarrhea. Crohn's disease affects the distal ileum and colon, but may occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus and perianal area. The symptoms are chronic diarrhea associated with abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, weight loss, and a mass or fullness in the right lower quadrant (of the abdomen).



frequent excretion of liquid intestinal contents. Diarrhea is the main symptom of such acute bacterial and viral intestinal diseases as dysentery, food poisonings, and colienteritis, as well as of cholera, intestinal invasions, and other inflammatory intestinal diseases. It can also be a symptom of chronic lesions of other digestive organs, for example, the stomach and pancreas; of general chronic diseases, such as tuberculosis; and of acute and chronic poisonings of exogenous (as from heavy metals) and endogenous (from renal insufficiency) origin. Diarrhea may also result from metabolic disturbances, from ingestion of excessive or coarse food, or from neuroses. In addition, it occurs in infantile, fermentative, and putrefactive dyspepsia.

The development of diarrhea is related to the liquefaction of the intestinal contents owing to an inflammatory exudate or to an accumulation of fluid in the intestinal lumen when the fluid’s absorption is hindered. The intestinal contents move more rapidly, stimulated by the prostaglandins, and there is a change in the transport of sodium and other electrolytes as well as osmotic shifts in the intestine. False, or constipation, diarrhea is a secondary liquefaction of the intestinal contents during prolonged constipation; a small quantity of liquid feces is excreted frequently.

The diagnosis of diarrhea varies with the disease and is based on the medical history and on examination of the feces. Therapy consists of treatment of the basic disease; special diets, antiinfectives, astringents, and enzymes are prescribed for symptomatic relief.



The passage of loose or watery stools, usually at more frequent than normal intervals.


(esp US), diarrhea
frequent and copious discharge of abnormally liquid faeces
References in periodicals archive ?
We can save the lives of millions of children with a coordinated approach to combating diarrheal disease that includes prevention and treatment methods available today," said Dr.
OneWorld Health greatly appreciates Novartis' commitment to addressing unmet medical needs in impoverished communities and their willingness to dedicate their knowledge and expertise to the fight against childhood deaths from diarrheal diseases.
Address for correspondence: Robert Tauxe, Chief, Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, NCID, CCID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE Mailstop A38, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA; fax: 404-639-2205; email: rvtl@cdc.
GENEVA & SEATTLE -- The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that rotavirus vaccination be included in all national immunization programmes in order to provide protection against a virus that is responsible for more than 500,000 diarrheal deaths and two million hospitalizations annually among children.
Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of death in the world.
Napo") is proud to announce that the Company is part of the Call to Action led by PATH, UNICEF, and WHO to raise the visibility of diarrheal disease and solutions to address it.
The 2004 meeting was held March 4-5 in Decatur, Georgia, and hosted by the Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC.
2 million premature deaths from otherwise preventable enteric diseases, including diarrheal diseases, says the World Health Organization.
617-534-4233 -- A three-year project to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of homemade cereal-based oral rehydration solutions (ORS) for treating potentially fatal diarrheal dehydration among children aged 2-24 months of age.
A virologist is making what he calls a "radical" proposal for the mechanism of dispersal of rotaviruses, the agents most commonly responsible for hospitalized cases of diarrheal disease in children.
OneWorld Health and Roche, a multinational pharmaceutical company with headquarters in Basel, Switzerland, and a global research presence, entered into a research collaboration in the spring of 2008 to fight neglected diarrheal diseases, which kill nearly two million children under the age of five in the developing world each year.
Enteritidis causes severe diarrheal illness, which can be life-threatening, especially among children, the elderly, and immunocompromised persons.