To complement the exposure assessment, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the pool waters in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and screened for DBPs, comprehensively identifying most DBPs detected and quantifying a few targeted DBPs and disinfectant species (THMs, chlorine, monochloramine, dichloramine, and trichloramine) in the pool waters and in the air phase above the water (THMs and trichloramine).
Free chlorine, monochloramine, dichloramine, trichloramine, and THMs were measured in composite pool water samples (1 L) collected from four different locations.
In addition, we detected mono- and dichloramine in the pool waters (means of 0.
In potable water, chloramines can take on various forms: monochloramine, dichloramine
Thus, the effects of hypochlorous acid versus the hypochlorite anion could be distinguished for free chlorine; similarly, the dichloramine impacts (low pH) could be assessed relative to the monochloramine (high pH) (ref.
The most detrimental exposure condition, by a wide margin, was the dichloramine solution.
In general, the dichloramine exposure (low pH chloramine) produced the greatest surface deterioration, followed by the monochloramine and low pH free chlorine (hypochlorous acid).
After only 24-hours exposure to dichloramine, the incipient cracking evident on a test coupon was largely normal to the tensile force exerted along the coupon length.
Materials are presented in rank order from least susceptible to most susceptible, based on dichloramine exposure.
A single value for free chlorine, monochloramine, dichloramine, and trichloramine was obtained for each participant as measured by N, N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) procedure with a portable photometer (DINKO Instruments, Inc.
Dichloramine in water was inversely and significantly correlated with brominated THMs but not with chloroform in water, air, and exhaled breath.
The increase in serum CC16 concentration was significantly correlated with different indicators of DBP exposure (negatively with dichloramine in water and positively with free chlorine in water and bromodichloromcthane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform in exhaled breath) and with energy expenditure (Table 3, Figure 2).