Diencephalon

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diencephalon

(dī'ənsĕf`əlŏn): see brainbrain,
the supervisory center of the nervous system in all vertebrates. It also serves as the site of emotions, memory, self-awareness, and thought. Anatomy and Function
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Diencephalon

 

the section of the brain that consists of the most anterior (in man, the topmost) part of the brain stem, over which the cerebral hemispheres are located.

Inferiorly and posteriorly, the diencephalon borders on the mesencephalon (midbrain). The central portion of the diencephalon, around which the other parts are grouped, is the thalamus. These other parts are the epithalamus, which includes the epiphysis; the hypothalamus, which is connected to the pituitary, or hypophysis; and the subthalamic nucleus. The formations of the diencephalon perform a number of very important functions: they participate in the organization of the body’s sensory processes (sensitivity), motor functions, and autonomic (visceral) activities. The diencephalon plays a very important role in processes related to emotional reactivity and the states of sleep and wakefulness, as well as in the autoregulatory processes of the brain, which are reflected in the overall electrical activity of its higher areas, as recorded in the electroencephalogram. The diencephalon processes and switches the currents of neural impulses that enter from the various sense organs and signal shifts in the body’s external and internal environments. It does the same with impulses from various brain structures and directs them to other areas of the brain, including the cerebral cortex.

L. P. LATASH


Diencephalon

 

the section of the brain at the base of the large hemispheres that is the extreme anterior part (in humans the superior part) of the brain stem. The different portions of the diencephalon are the thalamus, hypothalamus, and subthalamus. Together they have very important functions; for example, they participate in the organization of the sensory processes of brain analyzers and in the performance of autonomic functions. Other bodily functions they affect are sleep, memory, instinctive behavior, and emotional and motivational processes. The structures of the diencephalon are associated with the perception of pain sensations and with the integration of the processes that maintain homeostasis. The functions of the glands of internal secretion are regulated through releasing hormones (releasing factors) produced by the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus. Aldosterone is produced, for example, by the adrenal cortex with the participation of a special polypeptide from the hypothalamus.

L. P. LATASH

diencephalon

[¦dī·en′sef·ə‚län]
(embryology)
The posterior division of the embryonic forebrain in vertebrates.
References in periodicals archive ?
Throughout the years, terms such as diencephalic autonomic epilepsy (Penfield, 1929), central dysregulation (Bricolo, Turazzi, Alexandre, & Rizzuto, 1977), tonic decerebrate spasms (Cartlidge & Shaw, 1981), tonic cerebellar fits (Davis & Davis, 1982), sympathoadrenal response (Rosner, Newsome, & Becker, 1984), decerebrate rigidity (Klug et al.
Table 1 Effects of Rhodiola rosea administration at different doses (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) on diencephalic serotonin metabolism, 24 h after saline or nicotine administration, during withdrawal.
2005) reported that BMP signaling, including BMPR-IB, is involved in chick diencephalic development, and the expression level of BMPR-IB decreases in the theca of chicken ovary from F1 to F3 follicles.
The objective was to target the diencephalic dopaminergic neurons of the zebrafish to mimic the symptoms present in individuals with pd.
1928), "A Diencephalic Mechanism for the Expression of Rage with Special Reference to the Central Nervous System', American Journal of Physiology, 84: 490-513.
First documented in 1858 by Wallmann, the cyst develops from the neuroepithelium of the diencephalic roof and usually implants into the third ventricle.
Application of the selective HA receptor antagonists enabled us to demonstrate that it was the diencephalic region that proved to be a preferential target of the major distribution differences of all subtypes ([H.
So Quirk decided that he had found an indicator of deep diencephalic epilepsy.