difference


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difference

1. Maths
a. the result of the subtraction of one number, quantity, etc., from another
b. the single number that when added to the subtrahend gives the minuend; remainder
2. Logic another name for differentia
3. Maths of two sets
a. the set of members of the first that are not members of the second.
b. symmetric difference the set of members of one but not both of the given sets.

difference

contrast, unlikeness. Three interrelated but distinct usages of the term are important:
  1. (within SAUSSURE's linguistic theory) the presupposed (or ‘absent’) contrast(s) in any signification, necessary because meaning is never present in individual signifiers but gained (and never fully or finally) by contrast with other signifiers;
  2. (for DERRIDA) an emphasis above all, on the open-endedness of différence and djfférance, as undermining ‘several kingdoms’, including the ‘metaphysics of presence’ and the ‘logocentrism’ of traditional philosophy (as well as some of Saussure's interpretations of his own linguistics). See also DECONSTRUCTION.
  3. (more general use of the term) cultural differences of any kind.

Compare OTHERNESS.

Difference

 

a comparative description of objects, based on the fact that properties present in some objects are lacking in others. In materialist dialectics, “difference” is understood as a necessary moment in every thing, phenomenon, and process, characterizing its inner contradictoriness and development.

The category of difference is inseparable from the category of identity. The closest connection and mutual interpenetration of difference and identity occurs in the course of the reflection of the movement and development of objects, when difference exists within identity, and identity within difference. The objective basis for the unity of difference and identity is the unity between the stability and the changeability of things. In this unity, stability is manifested as the identity of the changing object with itself, and changeability, as a violation of this identity, or as difference within identity.

difference

[′dif·rəns]
(mathematics)
The result of subtracting one number from another.
The difference between two sets A and B is the set consisting of all elements of A which do not belong to B; denoted A-B.
References in classic literature ?
Causes of Variability -- Effects of Habit -- Correlation of Growth -- Inheritance -- Character of Domestic Varieties -- Difficulty of distinguishing between Varieties and Species -- Origin of Domestic Varieties from one or more Species -- Domestic Pigeons, their Differences and Origin -- Principle of Selection anciently followed, its Effects -- Methodical and Unconscious Selection -- Unknown Origin of our Domestic Productions -- Circumstances favourable to Man's power of Selection.
Moreover, on the view of the origin of genera which I shall presently give, we have no right to expect often to meet with generic differences in our domesticated productions.
Great as the differences are between the breeds of pigeons, I am fully convinced that the common opinion of naturalists is correct, namely, that all have descended from the rock-pigeon (Columba livia), including under this term several geographical races or sub-species, which differ from each other in the most trifling respects.
And if, I said, the male and female sex appear to differ in their fitness for any art or pursuit, we should say that such pursuit or art ought to be assigned to one or the other of them; but if the difference consists only in women bearing and men begetting children, this does not amount to a proof that a woman differs from a man in respect of the sort of education she should receive; and we shall therefore continue to maintain that our guardians and their wives ought to have the same pursuits.
would not these be the sort of differences which distinguish the man gifted by nature from the one who is ungifted?
Was not the selection of the male guardians determined by differences of this sort?
I know by bitter experience, and yet you say it makes 'no difference.
Whenever the effect resulting from a stimulus to an organism differs according to the past history of the organism, without our being able actually to detect any relevant difference in its present structure, we will speak of "mnemic causation," provided we can discover laws embodying the influence of the past.
At present, there is, so far as I am aware, no good evidence that every difference between the knowledge possessed by A and that possessed by B is paralleled by some difference in their brains.
The settlement of a rule would, in the meantime, be postponed by real differences of opinion and affected delays.
In order for us to examine the question of "differential effects," we need to create a difference score:
Folks in the field thought we might see a difference in enrollment information when day and resident camps were compared.