The submersivity property plays a crucial role in the study of discrete-time nonlinear control systems, described either in terms of the shift or difference operator
ref]; (2) flattest model, that is, smallest first-order difference operator
But for practical application in high-speed railway transport hub video surveillance, the disturbances result from errors of difference operator
, system noise and overlap caused by crowded passengers can make large error of passenger flow status recognition.
3) generalizes the divided difference operator
for G/B to what we call the highest root Hessenberg variety.
omega]] f(t) = f (t + [omega]) - f(t) / [omega] is the forward difference operator
with stepsize [omega] , and [D.
To establish the corresponding relation, let us first recall the definition of the backward difference operator
0]), and [DELTA] denotes the forward difference operator
, that is, [DELTA]x(n) = x(n +1) - x(n) for a sequence x(n).
t] is a binary variable to reflect the public's dissatisfaction with government as a result of the Watergate scandal, assuming a value of 1 during the years of the Watergate scandal; TREND is a trend variable; and z is the first difference operator
where [delta] is the difference operator
, (Y/POP) is gross domestic product per capita, POP is total population, and [epsilon] and [micro] are zero-mean, serially uncorrelated random error terms.
1 we briefly review tuple derivations for set operators, and provide an example justifying the definition for the difference operator
All lower case variables are logged and [Delta] denotes the first difference operator
Users have control over such things as grid resolution, number of time steps, difference operator
complexity, and other parameters that are usually adjusted to allow the program to be run in some desired amount of time.