We do not use any of these data in this article, because the sample size is too small for meaningful distributional analysis (to observe whether the differential selection drew in different people, which then would lead to different analytical results for the Phase 2 games themselves).
Hypothesis 2: The level of ambiguity in each solicitation does not generate differential selection on ambiguity personality characteristics with respect to who participates.
However, comparing Rows B and C shows that the ambiguous task generates differential selection toward those less ambiguity averse (p-value 0.
We find the same pattern shown in Table 3 that the ambiguous task treatment deters the ambiguity averse from participating (significant at 1%), but that the ambiguous payout treatment does not generate differential selection patterns.
And although differential selection
is operative in each case, the selectivity at issue will vary.
Phylogenetic relationships and differential selection
pressures among genotypes of dengue-2 virus.
In contrast to the earlier results, however, correcting for differential selection into full-time work reduces the penalties for gay men and eliminates the entire wage premium for lesbians--actually revealing a sizeable but insignificant penalty for married lesbians.
We then use the Heckman selection model to control for differential selection probabilities into paid fulltime work.
Under the stringent assumptions of the model, this correction for differential selection by sexual orientation, among other factors, is likely to provide better estimates of the income disparity among homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual workers.
Given the evidence here, it appears that the lack of difference by sexual orientation for men and women is due in part to differential selection into paid full-time work and in other part to a measurable decline in these wage penalty/premia over time.
The same instructor taught all sections of the research methodology course, thereby minimizing any implementation threat to internal validity resulting from differential selection
of instructors (Onwuegbuzie, 2003).