For the diffuse radiation
transmitted through the windows and direct reflected solar gains, three methods are considered: area ratio, absorptance weighted area ratio, and radiosity.
The extragalactic background light (EBL) is the diffuse radiation
from all stars and galaxies, a dim but pervasive glow that fills the universe.
direct) radiation through the atmosphere, DiffFrac is the fraction of diffuse radiation
through the atmosphere, SOF is the sky obscuration factor of the canopy as a function of solar elevation zenith angle, and [[bar.
ij] is the fraction of diffuse radiation
leaving surface that is intercepted by surface j.
The detector has angular response very close to an ideal cosine function (Lambertian response) making it suitable for measurements of diffuse radiation
or radiation generated by extended sources.
To estimate how aerosols affect the rate at which the world's plants take up carbon, Mercado and her colleagues adjusted ah ecosystem model to include the effects of diffuse radiation
Modified Hottel's model [3, 5] has been used to calculate the beam radiation and Liu-Jordan's model  to calculate the diffuse radiation
The proposed system offers significant improvements in solar cell efficiencies compared to existing battery chargers and record flat plate terrestrial solar cells that collect both the direct and diffuse radiation
and are not mobile.
To estimate the effect of the directional dependence of the diffuse radiation
we made a virtual experiment, assuming that at the constant value of the global irradiance on the horizontal plane a part of the diffuse radiation
is transferred from the isotropic to the circumsolar form as follows:
Both direct and diffuse components of radiation are useful; the only distinction between the two being that diffuse radiation
cannot be concentrated for use.
The claim is that their "nulls" and diffuse radiation
will do the trick.
The insolation types calculated for each cell are direct and diffuse radiation