The compounds were characterized as two diketopiperazines
, cyclo-L-Ala-L-Leu (1)  and cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Pro) (2) ; two nucleosides, cordycepin (3) and Ara-A(4) .
MannKind was recently faced with the challenge of scaling the manufacture of the small molecule raw material (a diketopiperazine
or DKP) used to prepare Technosphere[R] particles.
Their study reports that any form of heating of aspartame, rapidly causes the formation of diketopiperazine
(DKP) and free phenylalanine.
Kanokmedhakul S, Kanokmedhakul K, Phonkerd N, Soytong K, Kongsaeree P, Suksamrarn A (2002) Antimycobacterial Anthraquinone-Chromanone Compound and Diketopiperazine
Alkaloid from the Fungus Chaetomium globosum KMITL-N0802.
Methyl alcohol breaks down in high temperatures and becomes formaldehyde and diketopiperazine
(DKP) -- both chemicals are known to cause problems in the nervous' system.
In February 2008, Emisphere sold to MannKind certain Emisphere patents and a patent application relating to diketopiperazine
technology for a total purchase price of $2.
Polycondensation of L-Lysine Diketopiperazine
with Tartaric Acid - Evidence on the Formation of Cyclic Oligomers, Macromol.