glycol

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glycol

(glī`kōl), dihydric alcoholalcohol,
any of a class of organic compounds with the general formula R-OH, where R represents an alkyl group made up of carbon and hydrogen in various proportions and -OH represents one or more hydroxyl groups.
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 in which the two hydroxyl groups are bonded to different carbon atoms; the general formula for a glycol is (CH2)n(OH)2. The most important glycol is the simplest, ethylene glycol, or 1,2-ethanediol, CH2OHCH2OH, a slightly sweet-tasting, somewhat viscous liquid that is miscible with water. Because of its low volatility (b.p. 197°C;) and low corrosive activity, it is widely used in mixtures of automobile antifreezeantifreeze,
substance added to a solvent to lower its freezing point. The solution formed is called an antifreeze mixture. Antifreeze is typically added to water in the cooling system of an internal-combustion engine so that it may be cooled below the freezing point of pure
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. Ethylene glycol can be esterified to form polyesters, e.g., DacronDacron
, trademark for a polyester fiber. Dacron is a condensation polymer obtained from ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. Its properties include high tensile strength, high resistance to stretching, both wet and dry, and good resistance to degradation by chemical bleaches
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, and can be nitrated to form an explosive used in mining. It is prepared commercially by oxidation of ethylene at high temperature over a silver oxide catalyst, followed by acid-catalyzed hydrolysishydrolysis
, chemical reaction of a compound with water, usually resulting in the formation of one or more new compounds. The most common hydrolysis occurs when a salt of a weak acid or weak base (or both) is dissolved in water.
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 of the ethylene oxide that is formed.

Cellosolves (e.g., methyl cellosolve, CH3OCH2CH2OH) are monoether derivatives of ethylene glycol. They are excellent solvents, having solvent properties of both ethers and alcohols; they have other uses as well. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to thicken shampoo and cosmetics. It can also be attached to other molecules via a process called pegylation. When pegylated to medicinal drugs, it can alter their distribution in the body, metabolism, and excretion. Such alteration can lead to improved dosing intervals and may also have beneficial effects on safety and efficacy. Pegylation can also mask certain drugs, such as interferon, from the immune system, preventing their rejection.

glycol

[′glī‚kȯl]
(organic chemistry)
Cn H2 n (OH)2 An organic chemical with two hydroxyl groups on an essentially aliphatic carbon chain. Also known as dihydroxy alcohol.
HOCH2CH2OH A colorless dihydroxy alcohol used as an antifreeze, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of dynamites and resins. Also known as ethlene glycol.
References in periodicals archive ?
Polycarbonate diol Production by Regions By Technology By Applications
or -])-(4R)-Limonene (64) yielded (lS,2S,4R)-p-menth-8-ene-1,2, diol (69) when fermented with the fungus Diplodia gossypina (Scheme 31) while (-)-(4S)-limonene (67) afforded (1R,2R, 4S)-p-menth-8-ene-l ,2-diol (72) by fermentation with D.
This prepolymer was mixed with a proprietary diol, poured into molds and cured/post-cured at 120[degrees]C for 16 hours.
The PEUs from the other diols, polycaprolactone diol (PCLD), poly(ethylene adipate) diol (PEAD), and poly(butylene adipate) diol (PBAD), were synthesized in the same way.
In the series of butane diol modification as the amount of butane diol increased in the formulation, the contact angle increased excepting SAP75BD.
1], characteristic of the stretching vibrations of the hydroxyl group, which came from the diol monomers.
Unoxol Diol, A New Liquid Cycloaliphatic Diol for Coatings Applications," Paint Coat.
Diacid, diol, and hydroxyl-terminated PDMS with 1 wt% T-12 based on the total mass of monomers as the catalyst were charged into a 100 ml three-necked flask, equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a nitrogen inlet, a reflux condenser, and a receiver pipe.
The values in Table 2 calculated with NMR data were slightly lower than theoretical values due to small deviation in measuring the hydroxyl value of PBA diol and slight evaporation of L-lactide in polymerization.
Nonionic surfactants that are based on acetylenic diol technology have been reported to provide higher efficiency and multifunctionality and, therefore, have been widely used in coatings.
Most TPU comparisons are done depending on the many types of polymer diols or polyols (soft segment) that are used in making the urethane polymer.