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(invertebrate zoology)
The true flies, an order of the class Insecta characterized by possessing only two wings and a pair of balancers.



an order of insects with complete metamorphosis. In Diptera, only one pair of wings is developed (the front pair), the hind wings are reduced and take the form of knoblike halteres. The head is rounded, with large, faceted eyes on the sides. The antennae are either multisegmented (Nematocera) or short and trisegmented (Brachycera). Diptera have sucking mouthparts. The head is movably joined to the thorax by a thin stalk. The wings are membranous, with few veins that often merge in the anterior part of the wing. The larvae are always more or less wormlike and legless. (The larvae have prolegs—unsegmented processes—on the abdominal segments.) The larvae of Nematocera and of lower Brachycera usually have a head and chewing mouth-parts. The larvae of higher Brachycera have a reduced head, the mouthparts consist of two hooks that move parallel to one another, and digestion is external. The pupa of Nematocera and of lower Brachycera is obtect, and in higher Brachycera (true flies) it is keg-shaped; the last larval skin serves as the casting for the pupa.

There are over 80,000 species of Diptera; in the USSR there are more than 10,000. They are distributed over the entire globe from the northern tundra to the tropics and deserts. There are species whose whole cycle of development takes place in the sea; but usually the larvae develop in the soil, decaying plant tissues, bodies of fresh water, living plants, and animal carcasses or as animal parasites. Adult Diptera may feed on the nectar of flowers or on decaying matter, or they may suck the blood of animals; some do not feed.

The larvae of many Diptera (crane flies, the hessian fly, frit fly, and the olive fruit fly) are dangerous pests of plants. Many Diptera are carriers of human disease (the house fly, gnats, malarial mosquito, and horseflies) and of diseases of domestic animals (horseflies and stable flies). The larvae of some Diptera (such as Wohlfahrtia magnifica) develop in body tissues of humans, causing special illnesses—myiases; the larvae of many Diptera (warble flies and horse botflies) parasitize farm animals, causing harm to livestock raising. Bloodsucking Diptera, known under the collective name of bloodsucking flies, are found in some places in large numbers and decreases the efficiency of people and the productivity of farm animals. Some Diptera, whose larvae develop in the bodies of harmful insects (for example, Tachinidae), are beneficial, since they decrease the number of pests and are used in the biological control of pests. Some Diptera are beneficial as pollinators of plants (for example, many hover flies) and as active soil builders (fungus flies and many others).


Zhizn’ zhivotnykh, vol. 3. Edited by L. A. Zenkevich. Moscow, 1969.
Opredelite V nasekomykh Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR, vol. 5. Edited by G. Ia. Bei-Bienko. Leningrad, 1969.
Krivosheina, N. P. Ontogenez i evoliutsiia dvukrylykh nasekomykh. Moscow, 1969.
Lindner, E. Die Fliegen der Palaearktischen Region, fasc. 1. Stuttgart, 1924.


References in periodicals archive ?
The dipteran, Pseudosciara forceps (Pettey), had only been previously recorded from Florida (Stephan, 1981).
Lastly, based on the habitat overlap reported here, we suggest that the use of Dipteran species to indicate site of death (for forensic purposes) should be focused exclusively on endemic species.
The MixSIR model with cavefish, dipteran larvae, and snails as potential production sources (Fig.
Their study did not include species-level identifications, and included all dipterans (except nematoceran flies), meaning that many small, weakly flying species were included.
The ICI values can be used as a reliable indicator of water quality, and are calculated by using the following metrics: total number of taxa, number of mayfly taxa, number of caddisfly taxa, number of dipteran taxa, percent mayfly composition, percent caddisfly composition, percent tribe Tanytarsini midge composition, percent other dipteran and non-insect composition, percent tolerant organisms (as defined by Ohio EPA), and number of qualitative EPT taxa.
Capturing specimens of 31 different Dipteran families is certainly indicative of the high overall level of biological diversity present in this area, especially considering that this research took place over nine days during the beginning of the rainy season and was limited to only a small fraction (nearing 1%) of the land available to research.
Nectars, for example, can be made available by diversifying the flora of agricultural environments (Wackers 2005), and both dipteran and hymenopteran parasitoids exploit this valuable source of carbohydrates (Jervis et al.
Invertebrates consisted of a variety of groups including micro-crustaceans (copepods, ostracods, and Daphnia), red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarki), Corbiculidae (Corbicula fluminea), tapeworms, dipteran larvae and adults, Notonectidae, and odonate nymphs and adults.
Prevalence of one Dipteran ectoparasite (Philornis porteri) on Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) was not directly related to urbanization in Florida (Le Gros et al.
North American dipteran pollinators: assessing their value and conservation status.
Although female and male eastern pipistrelles consumed approximately the same relative quantities of members of the Dipteran families Chironomidae, Tipulidae, and Trichoceridae, as well as unidentified large Dipterans, there w as a pronounced difference in the proportion of unidentified small Dipterans consumed by female and male eastern pipistrelles (Table II, Fig.
Several other dipteran families are probably scavengers (Anthomyiidae, Sarcophagidae), occurring only infrequently in decaying mushrooms.