Diptera

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Related to dipterans: order Diptera

Diptera

[′dip·tə·rə]
(invertebrate zoology)
The true flies, an order of the class Insecta characterized by possessing only two wings and a pair of balancers.

Diptera

 

an order of insects with complete metamorphosis. In Diptera, only one pair of wings is developed (the front pair), the hind wings are reduced and take the form of knoblike halteres. The head is rounded, with large, faceted eyes on the sides. The antennae are either multisegmented (Nematocera) or short and trisegmented (Brachycera). Diptera have sucking mouthparts. The head is movably joined to the thorax by a thin stalk. The wings are membranous, with few veins that often merge in the anterior part of the wing. The larvae are always more or less wormlike and legless. (The larvae have prolegs—unsegmented processes—on the abdominal segments.) The larvae of Nematocera and of lower Brachycera usually have a head and chewing mouth-parts. The larvae of higher Brachycera have a reduced head, the mouthparts consist of two hooks that move parallel to one another, and digestion is external. The pupa of Nematocera and of lower Brachycera is obtect, and in higher Brachycera (true flies) it is keg-shaped; the last larval skin serves as the casting for the pupa.

There are over 80,000 species of Diptera; in the USSR there are more than 10,000. They are distributed over the entire globe from the northern tundra to the tropics and deserts. There are species whose whole cycle of development takes place in the sea; but usually the larvae develop in the soil, decaying plant tissues, bodies of fresh water, living plants, and animal carcasses or as animal parasites. Adult Diptera may feed on the nectar of flowers or on decaying matter, or they may suck the blood of animals; some do not feed.

The larvae of many Diptera (crane flies, the hessian fly, frit fly, and the olive fruit fly) are dangerous pests of plants. Many Diptera are carriers of human disease (the house fly, gnats, malarial mosquito, and horseflies) and of diseases of domestic animals (horseflies and stable flies). The larvae of some Diptera (such as Wohlfahrtia magnifica) develop in body tissues of humans, causing special illnesses—myiases; the larvae of many Diptera (warble flies and horse botflies) parasitize farm animals, causing harm to livestock raising. Bloodsucking Diptera, known under the collective name of bloodsucking flies, are found in some places in large numbers and decreases the efficiency of people and the productivity of farm animals. Some Diptera, whose larvae develop in the bodies of harmful insects (for example, Tachinidae), are beneficial, since they decrease the number of pests and are used in the biological control of pests. Some Diptera are beneficial as pollinators of plants (for example, many hover flies) and as active soil builders (fungus flies and many others).

REFERENCES

Zhizn’ zhivotnykh, vol. 3. Edited by L. A. Zenkevich. Moscow, 1969.
Opredelite V nasekomykh Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR, vol. 5. Edited by G. Ia. Bei-Bienko. Leningrad, 1969.
Krivosheina, N. P. Ontogenez i evoliutsiia dvukrylykh nasekomykh. Moscow, 1969.
Lindner, E. Die Fliegen der Palaearktischen Region, fasc. 1. Stuttgart, 1924.

M. S. GOILIAROV

References in periodicals archive ?
Decomposition and dipteran succession on pig carrion in central Argentina: Ecological aspects and their importance in forensic science.
Myiasis is the infestation of human or animal tissue by larvae of dipteran flies.
Dipteran species collected tended to be the larger, more obvious species, but they represented a variety of niches.
Multilocus microsatellites have also been observed in some other organisms such as dipteran (Wilder & Hollocher 2001), barley (Ramsay et al.
Ample of information is available on the distribution of various sensilla located on the antennae, labellum and maxillary palp of haematophagous dipterans (9-15) but limited work has been carried out on the sensillary studies with respect to tarsi and ovipositor (16-19)
The major foods of the gray bats at Sellersburg appear to be midges (Chironomidae) and other dipterans, in spring and fall, with various kinds of beetles comprising the major foods in summer.
In this paper we describe the first record of necrophagous dipterans of the Family Calliphoridae associated with carrion decomposition in the semi-arid region of Brazil, and briefly discuss the ecological implications of the establishment of non-native species.
Rainfall was also an important factor in emergence from diapause of some coleopterans, formicids, and dipterans, and an increase of breeding activity in formicids and isopterans (Maury, 1995).
A few biogeographic hypotheses based on phylogenetic reconstructions were proposed for the Atlantic Rain Forest, as the comprehensive studies of Costa (1995) for fishes and Amorim & Pires (1996) for dipterans and monkeys.
More specifically, it is worth noting that no dipterans, lepidopterans, blattids, scorpions or vertebrates were found, all of which are common in the area.
Dipterans (10-21% volume, 12-25% frequency), lepidopterans (20-25% volume, 16-19% frequency), and hemipterans (2-13% volume, 19-27% frequency) comprised the next largest portions of diet.