IL]-values from our study indicated that dispersal and mating patterns of prairie dogs served to minimize inbreeding within coteries, a result that was also supported by behavioral observations of a strongly male-biased dispersal pattern
and a few daughters that avoided mating with their fathers (Hoogland 1982, 1995).
With reversed sensors, the robot never hit the source, suggesting that the "hits" are not a result of a random walk, and that some feature or features of the odor dispersal pattern
are guiding the robot toward the source.
The dispersal pattern
of seeds and the genetic properties of those seeds produce the initial population template that defines the context of future ecological, demographic, and genetic interactions of emerging cohorts of seedlings.
Differences in the genetic structure of the seed bank and established individuals can depend on a variety of processes, including variation in the breeding structure, seed dispersal pattern
, temporal and spatial patterns of selection, variance in survival and fecundity, seed longevity in the soil, and the proportion of seedlings germinating from the persistent seed bank versus those germinating from the previous season's reproductive output (Tonsor et al.
The sequence of events are as follows: (1) The seed dispersal pattern
In milkweeds, hundreds of pollen grains are dispersed together in discrete packages termed "pollinia," whose dispersal pattern
depends on the pollinating insects.
3B illustrates that this dispersal pattern
(dashed curve) differs from that predicted when grooming creates a heterogeneous load in addition to causing pollen loss (Eq.
This raises the possibility of overestimating the potential for interdemic selection if the threshold defined by inequality (2) is used; however, the increase was small even though the two models represent the two extreme patterns of dispersal, suggesting that inequality (2) is generally a good approximation to the threshold, independent of the dispersal pattern
The structure of a local population and dispersal pattern
in the Styan's grasshopper warbler, Locustella pleskei.
The dispersal pattern
of birds raised as nestlings in Wytham, the surrounding area, and other areas is summarized in Fig.
Over the course of the growing season, the cumulative dispersal pattern
for Mantis religiosa appears more as a series of steps than the smooth sigmoidal curve predicted by diffusion [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 3 OMITTED].
Though slower fruit removal may at first appear disadvantageous because of the potential opportunity cost via reduced quantity of dispersal in a given period of time, it may in fact result in a higher quality dispersal pattern