This means that as trade costs fall further, so the clustering force becomes weaker, and location comes to be determined by factor prices, a dispersion force.
Further dispersion forces may be provided by urban congestion and commuting costs.
This is because when trade in goods is expensive, supply and demand in each country's product market (one of the dispersion forces of Section II) are the dominant forces which determine the location of activity.
They cover normal mode quantum electrodynamics: the quantum vacuum and its consequences, Van der Waals and Casimir-Polder dispersion forces
, the Casimir stress in real materials, macroscopic quantum electrodynamics and vacuum forces, measuring Casimir phenomena, and Casimir forces at the cutting edge.
Korter's new research combines THz experiments with new computational models that accurately account for the effects of the London dispersion forces
to predict crystal structures of various substances.
He considers intermolecular forces, the resonant transfer of energy, retarded dispersion forces
, many-body forces, and intermolecular interactions in a radiation field.
d] represents the work of adhesion due to the dispersion forces and [W.
In the case of PA-6/clay nanocomposites, the effective Hamaker constant values between the clay platelets and polymer matrix were estimated to calculate the dispersion forces between the two entities.
Thus, the work of adhesion arises only from the dispersion forces.
Fowkes and Mostafa proposed that dispersion forces and acid-base interactions are the primary forces operating across the interface .
AB] are the total work of adhesion, work of adhesion due to dispersion forces and work of adhesion because of acid-base interactions, respectively.
According to Fowkes, work of adhesion between two materials interacting only due to dispersion forces is given by