cephalic index

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cephalic index

(səfăl`ĭk) [Gr. kephale=head], ratio of the breadth of the head to its length. Expressed as a percental number, it provides the simplest description of the geometric relation of two dimensions. The index is obtained by dividing the maximum width of the cranium by its maximum length and multiplying by 100. In anthropometryanthropometry
, technique of measuring the human body in terms of dimensions, proportions, and ratios such as those provided by the cephalic index. Once the standard approach to racial classification and comparing humans to other primates, the technique is now used for deciding
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, the cephalic index has been the favored measurement. A cephalic index of 80 or more is called brachycephalic or broad; a measurement between 75 and 80 is mesaticephalic; below 75 is considered dolicocephalic or long. The cranial index is the same ratio taken on a skull.

index, cephalic:

see cephalic indexcephalic index
[Gr. kephale=head], ratio of the breadth of the head to its length. Expressed as a percental number, it provides the simplest description of the geometric relation of two dimensions.
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.

Cephalic Index

 

the ratio of the head’s greatest breadth (transverse diameter) to its greatest length (longitudinal diameter), expressed in percent.

The cephalic index is used in anthropology for determining the head contour in the horizontal plane. When the index is under 74.9 it is called dolichocephalic; between 75.0 and 79.9, mesaticephalic; and above 80.0, brachycephalic. With the aid of the cephalic index, local anthropological types can be isolated within the major races of man. Group variations in cephalic index are already reflected in early childhood. In comparison with earlier times, there has been an increase since the Middle Ages in the cephalic index (brachycephali-zation), although a decrease in the index (debrachycephaliza-tion) was recorded at a number of locations between 1950 and 1970. The cephalic index is not related to intellect.

V. P. CHTETSOV


Cephalic Index

 

in anthropology, the degree of protuberance of the face and the parts of the face in a vertical or horizontal plane. A vertical cephalic index is characterized by the facial angle, by the angle of the nasal portion of the face, or by the angle of the alveolar portion of the face.

A face is classified according to its facial angle. Thus, a prognathous face has an angle up to 79.9°, a mesognathous face has an angle of 80.0° to 84.9°, and an orthognathous face has an angle of 85° or more. A horizontal cephalic index determines facial flatness at the level of the root of nose; it also determines the degree of protuberance of the cheekbones. Cephalic indexes are good racial indicators.

cephalic index

[sə′fal·ik ′in‚deks]
(anthropology)
The ratio of maximum breadth to maximum length of the head multiplied by 100.
References in periodicals archive ?
A assessment Mallampati found that brachycephalic had a scale III, indicating difficulty moderate intubation, the dolichocephalic and mesocephalic segment I, easy intubation (Table 3), statistical difference was found between the brachycephalic group and dolichocephalic and mesocephalic groups (p=0.
The angles to be analyzed were: the nasolabial angle, formed by the nose columnela and the nasolabial projection; the interincisal angle conformed by the upper and lower incisors; the mentolabial groove depth, that gave the length of depth between the lower lip and the chin; and the mandibular plane angle, which divide the sample, due to its degree of divergence with Frankfort's plane, into brachycephalic ([greater than or equal to] 25[degrees]), mesocephalic ([greater than or equal to] 30[degrees]) and dolichocephalic ([greater than or equal to] 35[degrees]) (Fig.
57) "Regional continuity of mtDNA haplogroup frequency distributions occurs in the presence of marked discontinuity in craniometric features, suggesting an ancestral/descendant relationship between the younger brachycephalic [wide skull] and the older dolichocephalic [narrow skull] populations.
36) This "racial system" was composed ofa Europoid dolichocephalic Transcaspian race (the Turkmen), a Europoid brachycephalic race situated between the Ainu Darya and the Syr Darya (the Uzbeks, the Tajiks, a portion of the Karakalpaks), a Europoid dolichocephalic Caspian race (the Azeris), and a Siberian race from the south of Semirech'e (the Kazakhs and Kirgiz).
In 2004, a study in India on 302 male students showed that 41% of the students were mesocephalic, 37% brachycephalic, 14% heperbrachycephalic, and 7% dolichocephalic (Shah & Jadhav).
Cranial measurements, moreover, revealed that a statistically significant proportion of Jews were brachycephalic (or round-headed), a trait usually equated with primitive European inhabitants rather than the more progressive dolichocephalic (or long-headed) peoples.
People with a horizontal cephalic index of less than 76 have long, narrow head, and belong to dolichocephalic type of the head.
On the basis of this index, skulls were classified as hyperdolichocephalic, dolichocephalic, mesocephalic, brachycephalic, and hyperbrachycephalic.
Linear "V" Double Total Brachycephalic 10(62,5%) 2(50%) -- 12(52,2%) Mesocephalic 5(31,25%) 1(25%) 3(100%) 9(39,1%) Dolichocephalic 1(6,25%) 1(25%) -- 2(8,7%) Total 16(100%) 4(100%) 3(100%) 23(100%)