7% SL), first dorsal spine
shortest, subsequent spines much longer, longest dorsal-fin spine (IV) 8.
9) in SL; first three dorsal spines
subequal, the longest, 2.
The first and second dorsal spines
were shorter than the third and fourth spines.
Tibiae I-IV with 2 ventral spines distally, metatarsi I and II with 1 dorsal spine
and 2 ventral spines distally, metatarsi III and IV without dorsal spine
, with 2 ventral spines and 1 prolateral spine, and 1 retrolateral spine distally.
Growth of grey triggerfish, Balistes capriscus, based on growth checks of the dorsal spine
Description: Descriptions of this species indicate considerable variation in the shape, length, and number of lateral and dorsal spines
(Ramazzotti & Maucci 1983).
The depth was measured just in front of the anal fin to the extreme base of the dorsal spines
Other distinguishing characters include: fourth dorsal spine
Origin of dorsal fin above third lateral line scale; first dorsal spine
Age and growth of sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, using cross section from the fourth dorsal spine
Spination of legs: All femora with two strong dorsal spines
and 2-3 short lateral spines on both sides; tibiae I-II with six long, strong pairs of ventral spines, one long retrolateral spine, and one subdistal dorsal spine
; metatarsi I-II with 3 pairs of very long ventral spines in the basal half and few shorter ventral and lateral spines; patellae, tibiae and metatarsi III-IV irregularly covered with comparatively weak and short spines, very different from the very long and strong ventral spines of legs I-II.
3 in head length; color in preservative dark purplish brown anteriorly to a near-vertical demarcation usually at or slightly posterior to origin of anal fin (but rarely distinctly anterior to anal-fin origin), ending on average at base of ninth dorsal spine
, pale beige posteriorly, the median fins colored like adjacent body; a black spot over base and axil of pectoral fins; color in life very dark gray-brown anteriorly, abruptly white posteriorly, usually with wash of pale yellow over the anterior white, especially dorsally.