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a mixture used in the bread-baking, baranka (Russian national baked goods), confectionery, and macaroni industries, as well as in the preparation of baked goods in the home. Dough is made by mixing flour, water, yeast, salt, sugar, shortening, and other ingredients. It contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats, acids, and salts in various states—as expanding colloids, suspensions, and solutions.

In the bread-baking industry, dough is prepared with fermenting agents. In rye-flour dough, ferments are used, and in wheat-flour dough, yeast in liquid, cake, or dry form. The fermenting process, which occurs through the action of alcohol and acid, makes the dough light, gives it necessary physical and chemical characteristics, and provides bread with its pleasant taste and aroma. Wheat-flour dough is made either with or without leavening, whereas rye-flour dough is fermented with a starter or other fermenting agent.

In making rolls and pastries with wheat flour, such ingredients as fat, sugar, eggs, and flavoring are added to the dough, besides yeast and salt. This improves the taste, aroma, and nutritional value of these products.

The dough for most confectionery products is prepared without fermentation but with increased amounts of sugar, fat, eggs, and other ingredients. For many types of confectionery products, such as gingerbread and cookies, the dough is leavened with chemical leavening agents. The paste or dough for macaroni is not fermented, whereas the dough for baranki undergoes fermentation.

References in periodicals archive ?
Carefully place kneaded dough into bowl using dough scraper or large spatula, making sure to leave any on the table.
The best dough I've found is a pizza dough - it's the one I most often have leftover and it makes the most traditional style of dough balls (let's call them Pizza Express style).
Once the dough has cooled, it's time to bring your sea creature to life with acrylic paint and don't forget to varnish it to prevent the dough going soft.
To make the chessboard pattern, set a quarter of the vanilla dough to one side.
Tip your dough onto a lightly floured work surface shape to a ball and put into a large clean bowl.
By the time you've put away the flour and olive oil, the hard labor is done and you're holding a ball of dough, enough for two medium pizzas.
Mix sugar, yeast, oil, and 2 cups cold tap water in the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with a dough hook [A].
Once the dough has rested, cut out the sconelets using a 3cm cutter.
Place dough in an oiled bowl, and turn it several times to coat.
Turn the rested dough onto the work surface so that the sticky underside is on top.
Rotate knob on pasta machine by one notch, narrowing opening Run pasta through again lightly dust dough with flour, If necessary.
Stable Micro Systems, the world leader in texture analysis instrumentation, and Warburtons, the number one bakery brand in the UK, have announced the launch of valuable new testing equipment for the bakery industry: the Warburtons Dough Stickiness System.