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a mixture used in the bread-baking, baranka (Russian national baked goods), confectionery, and macaroni industries, as well as in the preparation of baked goods in the home. Dough is made by mixing flour, water, yeast, salt, sugar, shortening, and other ingredients. It contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats, acids, and salts in various states—as expanding colloids, suspensions, and solutions.

In the bread-baking industry, dough is prepared with fermenting agents. In rye-flour dough, ferments are used, and in wheat-flour dough, yeast in liquid, cake, or dry form. The fermenting process, which occurs through the action of alcohol and acid, makes the dough light, gives it necessary physical and chemical characteristics, and provides bread with its pleasant taste and aroma. Wheat-flour dough is made either with or without leavening, whereas rye-flour dough is fermented with a starter or other fermenting agent.

In making rolls and pastries with wheat flour, such ingredients as fat, sugar, eggs, and flavoring are added to the dough, besides yeast and salt. This improves the taste, aroma, and nutritional value of these products.

The dough for most confectionery products is prepared without fermentation but with increased amounts of sugar, fat, eggs, and other ingredients. For many types of confectionery products, such as gingerbread and cookies, the dough is leavened with chemical leavening agents. The paste or dough for macaroni is not fermented, whereas the dough for baranki undergoes fermentation.

References in periodicals archive ?
If the mixture is too dry, add a little milk until it comes together in a soft dough.
FOR THE VANILLA DOUGH: 500g plain flour 300g unsalted butter, at room temperature, diced 150g icing sugar 2 tsp vanilla extract 2 free-range egg yolks FOR THE CHOCOLATE DOUGH: 290g plain flour 30g cocoa powder 180g unsalted butter, at room temperature, cut into cubes 90g icing sugar 2 free-range egg yolks EXTRAS: The left-over egg whites for gluing the dough together Pinch of salt Pastry brush METHOD: To make the vanilla dough, sift the flour into a bowl.
At low frequencies, the doughs made from stronger flours exhibited higher ultrasonic velocities.
Cold doughs with salt do not generate the same level of enzyme activity, it is more useful to apply an autolyse process when using prefermented dough than when using a poolish or levain.
But be aware that some doughs -- such as meringue and biscotti -- cannot be frozen.
In this chapter, rich sweet doughs known as laminated doughs are discussed.
Phyllo dough, strudel leaves, or feuille de brik are all suitable substitutes.
With the V4 SPD, the temperature, texture and volume of sheeted dough remains virtually the same as when it left the mixer; fruits and grains in speciality bread doughs emerge intact.
Shelf-stable doughs like Bread Du Jour and Pepperidge Farm only need browning, and can go from bag to table in six minutes.
You'll need a pasta machine to roll the stiff doughs to uniform thickness.
a company that grows and sells yeast to companies that make frozen doughs, to attempt to develop freeze-and thaw-resistant strains of yeast.
These doughs may be mixed, formed and then held in frozen storage for some length of time before they are thawed, proofed and baked.