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a mixture used in the bread-baking, baranka (Russian national baked goods), confectionery, and macaroni industries, as well as in the preparation of baked goods in the home. Dough is made by mixing flour, water, yeast, salt, sugar, shortening, and other ingredients. It contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats, acids, and salts in various states—as expanding colloids, suspensions, and solutions.

In the bread-baking industry, dough is prepared with fermenting agents. In rye-flour dough, ferments are used, and in wheat-flour dough, yeast in liquid, cake, or dry form. The fermenting process, which occurs through the action of alcohol and acid, makes the dough light, gives it necessary physical and chemical characteristics, and provides bread with its pleasant taste and aroma. Wheat-flour dough is made either with or without leavening, whereas rye-flour dough is fermented with a starter or other fermenting agent.

In making rolls and pastries with wheat flour, such ingredients as fat, sugar, eggs, and flavoring are added to the dough, besides yeast and salt. This improves the taste, aroma, and nutritional value of these products.

The dough for most confectionery products is prepared without fermentation but with increased amounts of sugar, fat, eggs, and other ingredients. For many types of confectionery products, such as gingerbread and cookies, the dough is leavened with chemical leavening agents. The paste or dough for macaroni is not fermented, whereas the dough for baranki undergoes fermentation.

References in periodicals archive ?
Nope, it was a doughy, stodgy, undercooked effort that should never have left the kitchen.
The parsley that accompanied the Sainsbury's (***) pizza seriously overstayed its welcome on the palate leaving the cheese and tomato to play second fiddle, while a pleasing enough Waitrose (***) effort was let down by a doughy, flaccid base.
These are far too doughy and there was no overwhelming potato taste.
The prickly pair consist of the doughy Gary (Vaughn), a me-first man-child whose favorite things in life are ESPN ``SportsCenter,'' video games, beer and ``SportsCenter,'' and the taut Brooke (Aniston), an old-money art dealer whose tastes run to the finer things in life.
A bit on the thin side but worked well in enchiladas and not too doughy.
They soon up-tempoed with a steamy samba called Manteca (which curiously translates from Spanish as lard) which was anything but doughy.
Visiting goalkeeper Paul Thompson made strong saves to deny both Leon Doughy and Leon Kelly early on.
He found that customers in this country prefer a more doughy, soft bread, whereas the Germans prefer a crunchy, heavier bread.
When mixed with water, this powder forms a doughy clay which can be molded, colored and baked in your kitchen.
We are not sure what the "orange flavoured pieces" were but they gave a really fruity moistness to the buns, which were neither too dry nor too doughy and had just the right amount of spice.