drug poisoning

drug poisoning,

toxic effects caused by an administered drug. Worldwide more than 9 million natural and synthetic chemicals have been identified; fewer than 3000 cause more than 95% of acidental and deliberate poisonings. Reaction to a drug caused by an allergic sensitivity is not considered drug poisoning. Virtually all drugs, especially in large doses or when taken over long periods of time, can initiate a toxic condition. Certain drugs used in combination, such as alcohol and barbituratesbarbiturate
, any one of a group of drugs that act as depressants on the central nervous system. High doses depress both nerve and muscle activity and inhibit oxygen consumption in the tissues. In low doses barbiturates act as sedatives, i.e.
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, result in an intensified alteration of physiological state that is frequently dangerous. Drugs that affect the nervous system often cause adverse reactions in high concentrations. Alcohol and other nervous system depressantsdepressant,
any one of various substances that diminish functional activity, usually by depressing the nervous system. Barbiturates, sedatives, alcohol, and meprobamate are all depressants. Depressants have various modes of action and effects.
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, such as barbiturates and narcoticsnarcotic,
any of a number of substances that have a depressant effect on the nervous system. The chief narcotic drugs are opium, its constituents morphine and codeine, and the morphine derivative heroin.

See also drug addiction and drug abuse.
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, taken in sufficiently large doses, can result in coma and convulsions. Excessively high doses of stimulants such as amphetaminesamphetamine
, any one of a group of drugs that are powerful central nervous system stimulants. Amphetamines have stimulating effects opposite to the effects of depressants such as alcohol, narcotics, and barbiturates.
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 result in blurred vision, spasms, heart irregularities, and respiratory failure. In addition, continued use of both stimulants and depressants can lead to addiction and tolerance for toxic doses. Overdosage of an analgesic like aspirinaspirin,
acetyl derivative of salicylic acid (see salicylate) that is used to lower fever, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and thin the blood. Common conditions treated with aspirin include headache, muscle and joint pain, and the inflammation caused by rheumatic fever and
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 can result in acid-base disturbances, spontaneous bleeding, and convulsions. Virtually all drugs produce some side effects. For example, side reactions with barbiturates may include respiratory depression and skin rashes. Other drugs cause adverse reactions when taken over long periods of time. The antibiotic streptomycinstreptomycin
, antibiotic produced by soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces and active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (see Gram's stain), including species resistant to other antibiotics, e.g.
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 taken over long periods can result in deafness, and continued use of aspirin and other salicylatessalicylate
, any of a group of analgesics, or painkilling drugs, that are derivatives of salicylic acid. The best known is acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin. Now often made synthetically, they were originally derived from salicin,
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 can result in kidney damage and anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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. Some drugs only have toxic effects on sensitive individuals. Hallucinogenic drugshallucinogenic drug
, any of a group of substances that alter consciousness; also called psychotomimetic (i.e., mimicking psychosis), mind-expanding, or psychedelic drug.
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 such as LSDLSD
or lysergic acid diethylamide
, alkaloid synthesized from lysergic acid, which is found in the fungus ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It is a hallucinogenic drug that intensifies sense perceptions and produces hallucinations, mood changes, and changes in the
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 can result in hyperexcitability, coma, and prolonged psychotic states and can cause major personality changes in some users. In susceptible persons even moderate doses of phenothiazine tranquilizers, which are used to calm psychotic patients, can cause such toxic effects as low blood pressure, uncontrollable muscle movements, and various pigmentation and blood cell disorders (see phenothiazinephenothiazine
, any one of a class of drugs used to control mental disorders. Phenothiazines, along with other antipsychotic, or neuroleptic, drugs are used for such disorders as schizophrenia, paranoia, mania, psychosis resulting from mental deficiency, some forms of senility,
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).
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References in periodicals archive ?
Suicide is way up, and so are deaths from drug poisoning and the chronic liver disease that excessive drinking can cause.
In England and Wales combined there were 3,346 drug poisoning deaths registered in 2014 - the highest since comparable records began in 1993.
The national figure rose to 3,346 drug poisoning deaths in 2014 alone - the highest figure since records began.
There were 3,346 drug poisoning deaths registered in England and Wales in 2014 alone, the highest figure since records began.
Drug deaths are now the highest they have been since records began and for the second year running the North east was named as the worst region in the country for drug poisoning deaths.
RECORD numbers of people are dying from drug poisoning, new figures reveal.
THE North East has the highest death rates from drug poisoning for the second year running, new figures have revealed.
THE number of people killed by drug poisoning in England and Wales hit a record 3,346 last year, a report reveals.
The autopsy report submitted to the sub-divisional magistrate revealed that her death was due to drug poisoning while the marks were ruled as minor injuries.
In that same time frame, there were at least 1,019 drug poisoning deaths in Canada where fentanyl was indicated in post-mortem toxicological screening; more than half of these deaths occurred in 2013 and 2014.
The one bad sign was that the death rate from "unintentional injury" jumped by a third, driven by a tripling in the number of deaths due to drug poisoning.
5 and B22K4/0) as replacement solutions in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) to correct electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, and in case of drug poisoning when CRRT is used to remove dialyzable substances.