h are all positive dual variables associated with the first three constraints from the model (1).
h are all dual variables as sociated with the first three constraints from the model (4).
of the dual variable (o) and the influence [[zeta].
m] are the dual variables associated with the power constraint at the source and the different relays respectively.
We assume that (j, m, k) is a valid subcarrier pair, and set the different dual variables with the initial values.
j,m,k)], the dual variables at the (i +1)th iteration can be updated as
All other primal and dual variables simply respond to this change, trying to maintain feasibility or satisfying complementary slackness conditions.
Before showing how this is done, let us give the reader some feel for how the dual variables "pay" for a primal solution by considering the following simple setting: suppose LP (2) has an optimal solution that is integral, say I [subset or equal to] F and [Phi]: C [right arrow] I.
Throughout this phase, the algorithm raises the dual variable [[Alpha].
t] is simply the difference between the dual variables
for sources r and t, while [q.
Different users adjust the water level through dual variables [alpha], [[beta].
In this subsection the dual variables are updated by subgradient method.