duodenum

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Related to duodenal: periodontal membrane, Duodenal atresia, cholecystojejunostomy

duodenum:

see intestineintestine,
muscular hoselike portion of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the lower end of the stomach (pylorus) to the anal opening. In humans this fairly narrow (about 1 in./2.
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; pancreaspancreas
, glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. (17.8 cm) long and 1.5 in. (3.8 cm) wide. It lies beneath the stomach and is connected to the small intestine at the duodenum (see digestive system).
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.

Duodenum

 

the first section (individually distinct in man, mammals, and birds) of the small intestine, from the pylorus to the jejunum.

The length of the duodenum in man is approximately 25–30 cm (the width of about 12 fingers—hence the name); its volume is 150–250 ml. The wall of the duodenum consists of three layers: the inner layer of mucous membrane, the middle layer of muscular membrane, and the external layer of serous membrane. The mucous membrane forms numerous transverse folds, its surface studded with villi; it contains cells that manufacture an intestinal juice containing enzymes that break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates; it also contains enterokinase, which converts trypsinogen, the inactive enzyme of pancreatic juice, to the active trypsin. In the wall of the upper portion of the duodenum are the so-called Brun-ner’s glands, which, in structure and in the composition of the juice they secrete, are closely related to the glands of the pyloric portion of the stomach. The effluent ducts of the pancreas and liver open into the duodenal cavity through a common aperture. The acidic, gruel-like food mass (chyme) passing from the stomach continues to be digested in the duodenum under the influence of enzymes of the alkaline pancreatic and intestinal juices. Proteins are broken down into amino acids, carbohydrates into monosaccharides, and fats into glycerol and fatty acids. Bile promotes the digestion and absorption of fats. Through the walls of the villi the products of proteolysis and glycolysis enter the blood; the products of lypolysis enter the lymph. In the walls of the duodenum an inactive substance is formed (prosecretin) which, under the action of hydrochloric acid entering from the stomach, is converted to the biologically active secretin. Upon entering the blood secretin, acting along with the sympathetic nervous system, stimulates the secretion of pancreatic juice. Ulcer is the most common disease of the duodenum.

duodenum

[dü′äd·ən·əm or dü·ə′dē·nəm]
(anatomy)
The first section of the small intestine of mammals, extending from the pylorus to the jejunum.

duodenum

the first part of the small intestine, between the stomach and the jejunum
References in periodicals archive ?
Fayza Haidar said that the two-day old girl was born with a rare duodenal obstruction, pointing out that only one in 5000 newborn babies suffer from such a congenital deformity.
After 120 min of duodenal digestion, some [beta]-lactoglobulin was found intact (Figure 1: lane D5, band 1) together with the fragments of serum albumin.
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In sensitivity analyses, however, FMT delivered by duodenal infusion or enema was not superior to other strategies.
The data used in the application was from a double-blind comparative Phase II/III study in 472 patients who required long-term administration of low-dose aspirin and who were confirmed to also have a history of gastric or duodenal ulcer.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done and the status of the duodenal folds was recorded (normal, attenuation, and scalloping of mucosal folds).
Duodenal injuries secondary to blunt trauma can range in severity from an intramural haematoma to a complete transection and devascularization of the duodenum, and are graded 1-5 by the American Association for Surgery of Trauma [2, 5, 6].
Mexico Bariatric Center healthcare includes all weight loss procedures including: gastric bypass, gastric sleeve in Mexico, gastric banding, gastric plication, gastric balloon, duodenal switch and revision surgery.
Duodenal atresia is the causative entity most commonly linked with a double bubble sign.
Surgery provides the best chance for long-term pain relief in uncomplicated disease and can also address associated complications such as bile duct or duodenal obstruction.
National Institutes of Health), where the risk of performing a gastric bypass or duodenal switch is too high.