Duplication

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Related to duplications: Genome duplication

Duplication

 

carrying out similar or identical actions to attain the same aim; or making something in two sets, repetition, doubling. An example of duplication is the joint flight of a pilot trainee and of an instructor in a two-seated training aircraft on which the control instruments are firmly coupled and control can be exercised from either seat.

Duplication, as a one-time reserve, is a technique widely used in technology to increase the reliability of a system or unit or its essential elements or parts. The main and the reserve objects form a duplicated group. Duplication may be of two kinds: in permanent duplication, the main and the reserve objects function simultaneously and are in identical operating conditions; in replacement duplication (manual or automatic), the reserve object begins to function only after the main object fails. Under the second method the reserve object is, until the moment of replacement, in a nonfunctioning state and therefore less liable to failure than the main object.

O. G. LOSNITSKII and V. N. FOMIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The duplicators feature built-in VGA, keyboard and parallel printer connections for greater control over duplication sessions.
His team flagged many duplications as possible medical and evolutionary points of interest.
thesis analyzed songs by Debussy, and this book demonstrates that duplication is employed extensively in the piano part rather than the vocal line in Debussy's songs--though, oddly, the notion that repetition could here have a specifically accompanimental function is not addressed.
Dynamic retrograde urethrography was requested as a part of routine urological evaluation, which revealed complete duplication of the penile and bulbous urethra (Figures 1 and 2).
They then compared the duplications across the four species.
Changes in the two Bretton Woods institutions since their inception sixty years ago have led to various calls for reforms meant to reconfirm the basic mandates of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank and to eliminate duplication of effort.
In comparison with Legendre's integrals, Carlson's integrals simplify the reduction of general elliptic integrals to standard forms and open the way to efficient computations by application of a duplication theorem.
The court was also troubled by the fact that in its regulatory list of acceptable omissions and duplications, the IRS listed only duplications.
The Treasury Department and the internal Revenue Service concluded that the loss disallowance rule was the only administrable approach for preventing circumvention of the repeal of General utilities and for preventing another concern not addressed in Notice 87-14 -- loss duplication.
But large duplications of 20,000 bases or more, such as those mapped in the new study, may contain more than one gene or parts of genes and regulatory regions.
Although further studies are required to determine what role these duplications play in the patients' clinical features, microarray analysis was essential for identifying this novel chromosome abnormality.