Duplication

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Related to duplications: Genome duplication

Duplication

 

carrying out similar or identical actions to attain the same aim; or making something in two sets, repetition, doubling. An example of duplication is the joint flight of a pilot trainee and of an instructor in a two-seated training aircraft on which the control instruments are firmly coupled and control can be exercised from either seat.

Duplication, as a one-time reserve, is a technique widely used in technology to increase the reliability of a system or unit or its essential elements or parts. The main and the reserve objects form a duplicated group. Duplication may be of two kinds: in permanent duplication, the main and the reserve objects function simultaneously and are in identical operating conditions; in replacement duplication (manual or automatic), the reserve object begins to function only after the main object fails. Under the second method the reserve object is, until the moment of replacement, in a nonfunctioning state and therefore less liable to failure than the main object.

O. G. LOSNITSKII and V. N. FOMIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Finally, nuclear medicine evaluation can be helpful in duplications containing gastric mucosa as these will demonstrate uptake on technetium-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy.
Incomplete bladder duplication (BD) is an extremely rare congenital abnormality of the urinary system and is usually associated with other genitourinary anomalies (1, 2).
Gastric foregut duplication cyst is a rare condition of the upper gastrointestinal tract and occurs during embryologic development.
The mucosal lining within alimentary tract duplications does not necessarily correspond with the adjacent normal intestine and may display components of several different types of GI tract mucosa.
Three main steps occur from gene duplication for evolutionary preservation (Innan and Kondrashov, 2010).
A gangrenous perforated duplication cyst of the caecum with faecal peritonitis was found during an exploratory laparotomy.
An intestinal duplication cyst is a very rare congenital anomaly, with symptoms including abdominal pain, abdominal distention, intestinal bleeding, and hematochezia.
Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) duplication cysts are rare congenital malformations with an unknown incidence.
His team flagged many duplications as possible medical and evolutionary points of interest.
Keywords: Urethral anomalies Urethral duplication Congenital.
Although alimentary tract duplications are benign lesions in children, malignant degeneration has been described in the adult population.
These malformations were first introduced and termed as GI duplications by Ladd (6) in 1937.