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dust

See cosmic dust.

Dust

(pop culture)

Similar to his ability to transform himself into animals or a mist, as described in the 1897 novel, Dracula also could transform into a cloud of dust. Dr. Abraham Van Helsing made reference to the coming and going of the three women in Castle Dracula. While Jonathan Harker looked on, they transformed themselves into a dust form while standing in the moonlight. In his second encounter with the women, Harker saw the moonlight quiver as the dust danced around and then slowly took on a recognizable shape, the three phantomlike images.

Dracula made his first and only appearance in this form during his attacks upon Lucy Westenra. The wolf Beserker had broken some of the glass from the window in her room. Then suddenly, the room seemed to fill with “a whole myriad of little specks” blowing in the window and forming themselves into a “pillar of dust” inside the room. She passed out and upon regaining consciousness noticed that the air again was full of these dusty specks.

While a notable element in the novel Dracula, this vampiric ability has not been of importance to the twentieth-century conception of the vampire.

The vampire transforming into dust is, of course, separate from the vampire turning to a pile of dust when killed. This later concept appeared at the end of Dracula and was used, for example, in the Hammer adaptation of the novel, Horror of Dracula, in which Dracula burns in the light of the sun. In its sequel, the dust (or ash) is reanimated by dripping fresh blood on it. That process would be used in several movies as a means of reviving a deceased vampire. In Buffy the Vampire Slayer tevision series, as vampires are killed, they are said to be “dusted,” a reference to their immediate disentegration into a pile of ash/dust after being staked or beheaded.

Dynamite Fan Club see: Vampire Fandom: United States

Dust

 

an aerosol and disperse system that consists of small solid particles suspended in a gaseous medium. Separate particles and particle aggregates—from ultra-microscopic particles to those visible with the naked eye—have various shapes and compositions. In most cases, dust is formed as a result of the dispersion of solid bodies. It consists of particles that range in size from 10-7 to 10-4 m and that carry an electrical charge or are electrically neutral. Dust concentration, or dust content, is expressed by the number of particles or their total weight per unit volume of gas (air). Dust is unstable; its particles adhere during Brownian motion or during sedimentation.

The air always contains dust particles. The sources of dust include rock erosion, volcanic eruptions, fires, and wind erosion of arable lands. Droplets of seawater are carried into the atmosphere, where they evaporate and form dust. In industry, industrial dust is formed. The air also contains solid particles of cosmic and biological origin, such as plant pollens, spores, and microorganisms. Like other aerosols, dust affects the heat of the atmosphere and intensifies the scattering and absorption of light by the atmosphere.

Industry sometimes purposely resorts to atomization, for example, during the burning of pulverized fuel, during the air separation of powders, and during certain chemical engineering processes. The undesirable formation of dust occurs with the crushing and dry-grinding of hard rock, the mining of minerals, the processing and transportation of friable products and materials, and the burning of ashy organic fuel. Constant sources of increased dust concentration are the metallurgical, chemical, and textile industries, construction, many means of transportation, and some branches of agriculture, for example, fieldcrop farming. Industrial dust causes damage to equipment, lowers the quality of products, and causes the deterioration of working conditions. Dust from combustible or readily oxidized substances, such as coal, wood, flour, sugar, and aluminum, may be an explosive or fire hazard. The greater the dispersion and concentration of dust, the greater the probability of fire or explosion.

The collection of dust and the control of industrial dust formation pose important technical and health problems. Various types of dust collectors are widely used in industry, as well as complex systems of gas purification. The collection of dust is necessary in order to remove valuable products from the dust and is especially important in protecting the environment from air pollution in and around cities and industrial centers.

L. A. SHITS

Various characteristics of dust are significant in relation to health, including its chemical composition and concentration and the size, shape, and structure of its particles. The solubility, electrical charge, and radioactivity of dust are also significant. Dust has both a direct and indirect effect on the human body. Its direct effect may be the cause of atrophic, hypertrophic, suppurative, or ulcerous changes in the mucosa, bronchi, lung tissue, or skin. These changes can lead to such diseases as catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, ulceration of the nasal septum, bronchitis, pneumonia, pneumosclerosis, conjunctivitis, and dermatitis. Prolonged inhalation of dust leads to the development of pneumoconioses.

Some types of dust, for instance, lead, arsenic, and manganese dust, are poisonous. Organic dust of both natural and artificial origin, for example, grains and flower pollens and the dust from ursolic acid and a number of woods, may cause allergic diseases, including bronchial asthma. Dust may disseminate the causative agents of actinomycosis, anthrax, tuberculosis, diptheria, and ascariasis. Radioactive dust is a cause of radiation sickness. The indirect effect of dust on man is the specific result of the change that the intense dust concentration of the air causes in the spectrum and intensity of solar radiation; examples of changes in solar radiation include the absorption and scattering of ultraviolet rays and a decrease in illumination.

Prevention of industrial diseases includes the legislative regulation of healthy dust levels in the air and the administration of medical examinations. The control of dust formation and distribution is carried out by various methods. Organizational and technological measures that are extremely effective include replacing sandblasting of cast material with shotblasting and hydraulic spraying and dry boring and crushing with wet methods. Other measures include spraying with water and hermetically sealing equipment, moistening dust-producing materials, and using pneumatic tube transportation. The most effective means of removing dust from industrial and domestic premises is suction-and-exhaust ventilation and local ventilation with the use of air strainers. When there is a high dust concentration and an absence of ventilation, individual means of protection from the harmful effects of dust are used, such as respirators, pneumatic suits, helmeted suits, protective clothing, and goggles.

Biological methods of prevention against diseases caused by dust include ultraviolet irradiation of the body, alkaline inhalations, and a special diet.

REFERENCES

Fett, W. Atmosfernaia pyl’. Moscow, 1961. (Translated from German.)
Professional’nye bo/ezni, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1973.
Navrotskii, V. N. Gigiena truda, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.

A. A. KASPAROV

dust

[dəst]
(geology)
Dry solid matter of silt and clay size (less than ¹⁄₁₆ millimeter).
(physics)
A loose term applied to solid particles predominantly larger than colloidal size and capable of temporary gas suspension.

dust

Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes small enough to be carried aloft by air movement.
References in classic literature ?
Bagnet as she blew a little dust off the pickled pork, looking at me again; "and when ladies and gentlemen know you as well as I do, they'll give up talking to you too.
He is a most noble and loyal gentleman, but I have my own Basque peasant soul and don't want to think that every time he goes away from my feet - yes, mon cher, on this carpet, look for the marks of scorching - that he goes away feeling tempted to brush the dust off his moral sleeve.
They clear out with no words of leavetaking in some God-forsaken port other men would fear to be stranded in, and go ashore in company of a shabby sea-chest, corded like a treasure-box, and with an air of shaking the ship's dust off their feet.
When I undrew the curtains and looked out of bed, I saw him, in an equable temperature of respectability, unaffected by the east wind of January, and not even breathing frostily, standing my boots right and left in the first dancing position, and blowing specks of dust off my coat as he laid it down like a baby.
The accused claims during investigation that he touched the woman only to brush the dust off her clothes.
Dressed to chill EASTENDERS Mon, Tue, Thur, Fri BBC1 Brace yourselves - it's Halloween at The Vic giving Mick the perfect opportunity to unleash the spray-on cobwebs and dust off his Frankenstein costume.
dust off dumpers 3 and 4 is designed to separate filtration unit located on the new steel platform next to the hall trippers 3 and 4
In partnership with Kirklees Council, Calderdale Council and West Yorkshire Metro, the Sky Ride campaign has seen thousands of local residents dust off their bikes and get involved.
Her firm, which put together one owner controlled insurance program in higher education in 2010, has already hammered together several owner controlled programs in the first half of 2011 as schools dust off construction blueprints put on hold on account of the Great Recession.
BBC Radio Wales DJ Bethan Elfyn has appealed for the people of Cardiff to dust off their old music collections and donate them to the Oxfam Bookshop on the city's St Mary Street in aid of the store's vinyl and music promotion.
TELECOMS giants Cable & Wireless are planning to dust off demerger proposals that will see the group split their UK and international arms, it was reported yesterday.
Several studies have established that lead-exposed workers can carry lead-contaminated dust off the jobsite on their clothing, shoes, and tools.