duty

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duty,

in taxation: see tarifftariff,
tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic industries
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; excise taxesexcise taxes,
governmental levies on specific goods produced and consumed inside a country. They differ from tariffs, which usually apply only to foreign-made goods, and from sales taxes, which typically apply to all commodities other than those specifically exempted.
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.

Duty

 

a category of ethics that expresses the moral task of a particular individual, group of individuals, class, or people under specific social conditions and situations, a task that for them becomes an internally acceptable obligation. In this respect duty differs from the more abstract concept of what is due or fitting, which encompasses all the demands made on people in the form of norms.

In the history of mankind’s moral consciousness, duty has been interpreted in different ways, according to social or class conceptions of man’s obligations at a particular period in history; it has always been connected with specific problems of a time and of a given society. The concept of duty has included the fulfillment of the “simplest rules of the community of man,” which had been developed in the course of history. The problem of the nature of duty has always given rise to disagreement among the various schools and trends of philosophical ethics. The foundations of duty have been connected with the interpretation of moral necessity—the fulfillment of divine commands, cosmic or supernatural laws, official or unofficial social precepts, or self-realization of the internal potential of the personality.

In Marxist ethics, moral duty is regarded as the concretization of general requirements of morality, which have a historical origin and which pertain to existing circumstances, conditions, and a person’s abilities and potentials. These requirements determine the conditions and degree of his responsibility and constitute his motives and conscience. Thus, duty expresses the moral specifics of the socio-ideological position of personality with respect to the existing social situation and to the conflict and disposition of class forces, as well as the moral specifics of internal convictions and the means of their realization.

REFERENCES

Marx, K., and F. Engels. “Nemetskaia ideologiia.” Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, pp. 235-36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo i revoliutsiia.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, chap. 5.
Lenin, V. I. “Zadachi soiuzov molodezhi.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41.
Arkhangel’skii, L. M. Kategorii marksistskoi etiki. Moscow, 1963.

O. G. DROBNITSKII

What does it mean when you dream about duty?

To feel bound by duty in a dream may be a reflection of the dreamer’s past experiences in the military. If, however, the dreamer is overly concerned with duty in their dreams, perhaps compulsive behavior or control issues are posing problems.

duty

1. a government tax, esp on imports
2. Brit
a. the quantity or intensity of work for which a machine is designed
b. a measure of the efficiency of a machine
References in classic literature ?
The servant, as in duty bound, dismounted and took the phaeton into his keeping; yet Dick thought he touched his hat to him with something of a grin.
Joe considered himself in duty bound to taste the latter species of strong beer, but his palate, although accustomed to gin and whiskey, could not withstand the strength of the new beverage, and he had to make a horrible grimace, which his dusky friends took to be a benevolent smile.
They went to meet him, and in answer to their inquiries about Don Quixote, be told them how he had found him stripped to his shirt, lank, yellow, half dead with hunger, and sighing for his lady Dulcinea; and although he had told him that she commanded him to quit that place and come to El Toboso, where she was expecting him, he had answered that he was determined not to appear in the presence of her beauty until he had done deeds to make him worthy of her favour; and if this went on, Sancho said, he ran the risk of not becoming an emperor as in duty bound, or even an archbishop, which was the least he could be; for which reason they ought to consider what was to be done to get him away from there.
An the young bride had conveyed notice, as in duty bound, to her feudal lord and proper master and protector the bishop, she had suffered no loss, for the said bishop could have got a dispensation making him, for temporary con- veniency, eligible to the exercise of his said right, and thus would she have kept all she had.
I am directed not to allow you to communicate with any one without taking cognizance of what you do; I am in duty bound, accordingly, to overhear your conversations.
Monsieur," said I, "I addressed myself to you in the first instance, as in duty bound.
I know neither who got home safely nor who were lost but, as in duty bound, I will give you without reserve the reports that have reached me since I have been here in my own house.
So going to Benares, where will find address and forward rupees for boy who is apple of eye, and for Almighty God's sake execute this education, and your petitioner as in duty bound shall ever awfully pray.
This treasure, as in duty bound, I laid at the feet of Steerforth, and begged him to dispense.
She walked up into Miss Flora's sitting-room, as in duty bound, and there found a breakfast-table comfortably laid for two, with a supplementary tray upon it laid for one.
As soon as I got my breath I shouted, as in duty bound, 'Keep on, boys
Piper, as in duty bound, is of the same opinion, holding that a private station is better than public applause, and thanking heaven for her own (and, by implication, Mrs.