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1. Med the application of a steady pull on a part during healing of a fractured or dislocated bone, using a system of weights and pulleys or splints
2. the adhesive friction between a wheel and a surface, as between a driving wheel of a motor vehicle and the road



a method of treating patients with injuries (fractures, dislocations) and certain diseases of the supportive and locomotor apparatus (limbs and spinal column). Traction is used to restore the normal anatomical alignment of portions (segments) of the limbs in dislocations and of broken ends of bones in fractures, in sprains of persistently contracted muscles (contractures), and in the stretching of tissues surrounding a joint and to correct deformities of the joints and spinal column (by acting on the ligaments and muscles). Traction is also used in preparation for various surgical interventions and to hold the trunk and limbs in the correct position after a deformity has been surgically corrected.

Traction can be constant, that is, last for some time (three to four weeks or more) or be instantaneous (momentary). Constant traction, besides its corrective effect, has a pro-longed, gradual, relaxing effect on the muscles, ensures physiological rest by creating the best conditions for the circulation of blood and lymph, and permits functional treatment (graduated physical exercise, massage) to be started early. Traction can be applied to the limbs and spinal column in various ways, depending on the pathology involved and the treatment: in bed, on an inclined surface, on a special extension table, or under water. Patients with traumatic in-juries can be placed in traction by means of special splints using long needles or clamps attached to the bone (skeletal traction) or by means of soft braces secured to the limb with adhesive plaster or kleol (solution of rosin; adhesive-plaster traction) or cuffs with lacing. Spinal traction is secured by using special loops or clamps (attached to the head), soft straps, or a belt (attached to the pelvis). In traction the pull is created by suspending weights from strings drawn over pulleys. To create counterpull in traction of the lower limbs, the foot end of the bed is raised; in traction involving the head and using straps, the head end is raised.

Traction on extension tables is used for various diseases of the spinal column. It is exerted by the pull of a weight, spring rod, or rod of a special apparatus driven by electricity. Tensile force is increased by tilting the tabletop and by the mobility of the panels.

Instantaneous traction is exerted by the physician’s hands or by special apparatus (pulling apparatus) usually to align broken ends of bones in fractures or to reduce dislocations and is followed by fixation with a plaster cast or splints. In some spinal diseases and contractures of the lower limbs, use is made of traction in warm water to ensure better relaxation of the muscles. Traction is applied in a pool both in a vertical direction (the patient rests his head on a headrest and his arms on the elbowrest of a device immersed in the water; weights are suspended from the patient’s waist or lower leg) and in a horizontal direction (the patient’s trunk is held fast in a special bath by a soft belt around the chest while traction is exerted on the pelvis).


Bogdanov, F. R., I. G. Gertsen, and N. N. Veselkov. Ortopedotravmatologicheskaia apparatura i instrumentarii. Sverdlovsk, 1949.
Novachenko, N. P., and F. E. El’iashberg. Postoiannoe vytiazhenie. Kiev, 1960.
Volkov, M. V., and A. F. Koptelin. Lechenie vytiazheniem v vode pri zabolevaniiakh pozvonochnika: (Metodicheskie ukazaniia). Moscow, 1966.



Transport of sedimentary particles along and parallel to a bottom surface of a stream channel by rolling, sliding, dragging, pushing, or saltation.
(graphic arts)
A defect in a paint coating in which the film cracks and wide fissures reveal the underlying surface.
Pulling friction of a moving body on the surface on which it moves.
References in periodicals archive ?
Using the theory of electromechanical energy transformation, mathematical expressions of the dynamic traction force components of the linear electromagnetic motor were formulated and the dependencies of the traction force components on the secondary element position were obtained.
Standard features will include a barrage of key driving and safety aids such as Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) and Dynamic Traction Control (DTC) while BMW's highly praised Dynamic Drive and Active Steering systems can be specified as options.
The top-end R1200R Exclusive features modern electronics package including ABS, Automatic Stability Control, Dynamic Traction Control, Dynamic Electronic Suspension Adjustment, banking detection and different riding modes.
The dynamic stability control package with its anti-lock braking system, cornering brake control, dynamic traction control, electronic brake-force distribution and hill descent control give the big SUV similar driving characteristics to those found in its saloon siblings.
The JCW features dynamic traction control, which increases the tolerance for wheel slippage before stability control kicks in.
Familiar systems from other BMW models such as ABS brakes, Dynamic Stability Control, Dynamic Traction Control, Dynamic Brake Control and Cornering Brake Control are all fitted as standard.
The model features Race ABS, Automatic Stability Control, Standard-fitted steering damper, Optional Dynamic Traction Control DTC, full synchronisation of Race ABS, ASC/ DTC, DDC and engine management and Dynamic Damping Control.
The 320d comes well equipped and standard safety features include six airbags and dynamic stability control, which includes ABS, cornering and dynamc brake control and dynamic traction control.
5cm display, airbags all around, Dynamic Stability Control (DSC), Dynamic Traction Control (DTC), Cornering Brake Control and Dual-zone climate control.
Advanced head protection system and dynamic stability control - which includes electronic brakeforce distribution, brake drying, cornering brake control and dynamic traction control - help make the BMW one of the safest cars you can buy.
There is dynamic traction control, cornering brake control, precise active steering and fade free and drying brakes ( all major ingredients which help make this machine a worthy member of the BMW 'ultimate driving experience'.
The John Cooper Works is brimming with handling technology, including dynamic traction control, electronic brake force distribution, cornering brake control, electronic differential lock control, dynamic stability control and hill assist as standard.

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