These differ with respect to the role that information plays in each and whether information functions as a dynamical variable
in the top-down constraining process.
i], stn and thl are represented by a single dynamical variable
and they all have afferent and efferent connections, corresponding to the circuit given in Figure 1.
The fact that a unique range is inadequate to define n, justifies reasonably the idea of introducing a further range ancillary to [DELTA]x able to represent in R the values of a second dynamical variable
The new dynamical variable
is called momentum p; referred to the volume, it more precisely represents a temporal flow of matter, i.
Here z is the third independent dynamical variable
admitting that both dynamical variable
concur to describe any physical system, requires [[upsilon].
However (7) cannot be entirely expressed in terms of g because the fundamental dynamical variable
However (16) cannot be entirely expressed in terms of g because the fundamental dynamical variable
For realistic dynamical systems in the presence of noise, when the multichannel recordings are usually from signals to which quite different combinations of the intrinsic dynamical variables
of the underlying system contributed, it is often useful to explore weaker forms of synchronization, such as phase synchronization .
As it is shown in Figure 1, the most important dynamical variables
are: the roll angle [[phi].
In order for chaos to occur in a physical system, there must be at least three dynamical variables
with at least one non-linearity in the equations of motion.
In the replicated data approach [43, 44, 45] every processor has a complete copy of all the arrays containing dynamical variables
for every particle.