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Difficult or painful menstruation.



disturbances of menstruation, characterized by pains in the lower abdomen, the small of the back, and the sacrum (algomenorrhea), combined with general symptoms (migraine, heart palpitations, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rashes, and sleep disturbance).

Primary dysmenorrhea occurs in women with no previous gynecological disease, most often in young girls and young women who have not given birth. This dysmenorrhea often ceases with a regular sex life and especially after parturition. Secondary dysmenorrhea appears as a result of inflammatory processes, the development of tumors in the woman’s sex organs, version of the uterus, and so on. Dysmenorrhea may develop as a result of psychological shock associated with the onset of the first menstruation in uninformed young girls, when there is a long-unfulfilled desire to become pregnant, and in cases of unsatisfactory sex life. Sometimes dysmenorrhea arises owing to the functional characteristics of a woman’s nervous system (vagotonic form). A special form of dysmenorrhea is membranous dysmenorrhea, which is associated with hormonal disharmony (the preponderance of estrogen over the hormone of the corpus luteum).

Treatment depends on the causes of the dysmenorrhea and its form. General restorative treatment, pain relievers, sedatives, hormone therapy, and physical therapy are prescribed.

References in periodicals archive ?
SBP Change before and after the Test: The SBP difference was highest in the dysmenorrheic women (10.
DBP Difference before and after the Test: The DBP difference was highest in the dysmenorrheic women (4.
Following Plante and Denney (1984) all women with scores in the upper and lower quartiles in the six items (cramps, pain spasms, heat, aspirin, weak dizziness, nausea and dull aching) included in the menstrual pain factor of the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ) of Stephenson, Denney and Aberger (1983) and who reported painful menstruations during the last three months and had also taken any antiinflammatory, analgesic or ansiolitic drug or practised physical exercise in order to relieve the pain, were designated the dysmenorrheic and non-dysmenorrheic subgroups.
Nevertheless these cycle phase-related changes in negative symptomatology were unrelated to the ovulatory/ anovulatory condition of the cycle or the categorization of the women as dysmenorrheic or non-dysmenorrheic.
Graph 2: Percentage of dysmenorrheic women who suffered from associated Symptoms Associated symptoms with dysmenorrhea Associated symptoms Percentage% Mood changes 64.
Cramping episodes were triggered in the 24 dysmenorrheic women with an intravenous vasopressin (VP) infusion.