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Difficult or labored breathing.



disruption of the rate and depth of respiration, accompanied by the sensation of shortness of breath.

Cardiac patients experience dyspnea both while physically exerting themselves and while subsequently resting in the horizontal position. Their condition is complicated by orthopnea, the inability to breathe except in a sitting position. In patients with cardiac diseases, attacks of severe dyspnea, which usually occur at night, are a symptom of cardiac asthma. In such cases, the dyspnea is inspiratory; that is, the patient finds it difficult to inhale. Expiratory dyspnea, difficulty in exhaling, arises when the lumina of the small bronchi and bronchioles are narrowed, as in bronchial asthma. It also arises when the elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, as in chronic emphysema of the lungs. Cerebral dyspnea is a result of direct irritation of the cerebral respiratory center by such abnormalities as tumors and hemorrhages.

References in periodicals archive ?
as the severity of dyspnoea increases, the risk of depression increases and more dyspneic patients are more depressed.
Because our study not included the patients with NYHA functional class 3 or 4 or acute dyspneic attack, we could not investigate the relationship between Ucn-2 levels and NYHA functional class.
At the age of 13th days a shock occured, the child was pale, dyspneic and tachypneic.
After receiving a report on their patient, students encountered an anxious, dyspneic patient lying flat with a nasal cannula across her chest.
Finally, the strut and space configuration being so "open" will likely be less anxiety producing to the claustrophobic and/or dyspneic patient as well.
Gas exchange detection of right-to-left shunt in dyspneic patients: Report of three cases Chuang ML, Int J Cardiol.
Tests used to measure plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are becoming the preferred method of identifying CHF in dyspneic patients.
She was dyspneic at rest, had cor pulmonale, was losing weight, dependent on oxygen supplementation, had seen her physician twice in recent months for exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and had one hospital admission for respiratory failure.