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Difficult or labored breathing.



disruption of the rate and depth of respiration, accompanied by the sensation of shortness of breath.

Cardiac patients experience dyspnea both while physically exerting themselves and while subsequently resting in the horizontal position. Their condition is complicated by orthopnea, the inability to breathe except in a sitting position. In patients with cardiac diseases, attacks of severe dyspnea, which usually occur at night, are a symptom of cardiac asthma. In such cases, the dyspnea is inspiratory; that is, the patient finds it difficult to inhale. Expiratory dyspnea, difficulty in exhaling, arises when the lumina of the small bronchi and bronchioles are narrowed, as in bronchial asthma. It also arises when the elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, as in chronic emphysema of the lungs. Cerebral dyspnea is a result of direct irritation of the cerebral respiratory center by such abnormalities as tumors and hemorrhages.

References in periodicals archive ?
4 Our patient had symptoms of chest pain and dyspnoea which could be due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or coronary fistula.
Comparison of Symptoms between CHD & AHD Population Symptoms CHD [n=11] AHD [n=29] Dyspnoea 2[18.
Due to dyspnoea he took a seated position facilitating respiration.
In second buffalo, there was a visible granuloma in right nostril without causing any significant respiratory obstruction or dyspnoea (Fig.
A 35 years old Afghan male diagnosed with some congenital heart disease in early childhood, presented to the Emergency room (ER) of Rehman Medical Institute with right sided chest pain and dyspnoea of recent onset.
With the potential for end organ heart, kidney and brain-related complications in mind, a physician should probe the possibility of chest discomfort, dyspnoea and signs of congestive cardiac failure (as indicators for incipient cardiovascular complications), headache, visual changes, dizziness and altered consciousness (potential harbingers of neurological complications) as well as recent history of oliguria as a marker of possible related renal insult.
Centrally located masses are more commonly associated with symptoms of dyspnoea, chest pain, hemoptysis or pneumonitis and peripheral lesions are often asymptomatic or simply a non-productive cough.
A 39-year-old bodybuilder with a more than 20 year history of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse presented with increasing exertional dyspnoea and fatigue.
Dyspnoea is the subjective experience--usually unpleasant--of discomfort with breathing.
COPD is also of course associated with reduced exercise capacity secondary to hypoxaemia, dyspnoea and general physical deconditioning.
Again, awareness of these entities is critical when faced with a patient from the appropriate age group with slowly progressing dyspnoea.
However, her delirium persisted over the next five days and after she complained of worsening dyspnoea but no chest pain.