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Difficult or labored breathing.



disruption of the rate and depth of respiration, accompanied by the sensation of shortness of breath.

Cardiac patients experience dyspnea both while physically exerting themselves and while subsequently resting in the horizontal position. Their condition is complicated by orthopnea, the inability to breathe except in a sitting position. In patients with cardiac diseases, attacks of severe dyspnea, which usually occur at night, are a symptom of cardiac asthma. In such cases, the dyspnea is inspiratory; that is, the patient finds it difficult to inhale. Expiratory dyspnea, difficulty in exhaling, arises when the lumina of the small bronchi and bronchioles are narrowed, as in bronchial asthma. It also arises when the elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, as in chronic emphysema of the lungs. Cerebral dyspnea is a result of direct irritation of the cerebral respiratory center by such abnormalities as tumors and hemorrhages.

References in periodicals archive ?
The initial screening of potential candidates with stable disease should ideally be performed by pulmonologists, and should include an assessment of severity of dyspnoea, functional impairment, past thoracic surgery, comorbidities and smoking status.
Fear and anxiety about dyspnoea can result in stress associated with sexual activity, reducing enjoyment and willingness to participate in it (Steinke 2013).
Of subjective importance for the patients was the improvement in dyspnoea, which meant that they could assume a lying position without difficulty, and oxygen substitution could be discontinued.
In our patient, though there was cough, dyspnoea and chest pain, routine Chest X-ray was normal as the defect involved only abdominal organs.
The BSS (Bronchitis Severity Score) evaluates five symptoms, which are important for acute bronchitis: cough, sputum, rhales/rhonchi, chest pain during coughing, and dyspnoea.
Chylothorax may contribute to symptomatic dyspnoea in LAM and occurs by one of three mechanisms: 1) obstruction of the thoracic duct and its tributaries; 2) leakage from pleural lymphatics; and 3) transdiaphragmatic flow from chylous ascites.
The signs and symptoms that may help to confirm its applicability include prostration, mental weakness, irritability, dry mouth, tinnitus and dyspnoea.
The classical clinical symptoms of heart failure are exertional dyspnoea, orthopnoea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea, fatigue and the signs are elevated jugular venous pressure, pulmonary rales, third heart sound and peripheral oedema.
Exercise tests were terminated when symptoms of dyspnoea or leg fatigue became intolerable or when the participant could not keep up with the set speed, exercise intensity, or required pedalling rate (50-60 revolutions per minute).
Clinically, patients may present with cough, fever, dyspnoea and hypoxaemia and failure to wean off the ventilator.
Comparison of dyspnoea ratings and psychophysical measurements of respiratory sensation in obstructive airway disease.
Test termination criteria consisted of symptoms such as unsustainable dyspnoea or leg fatigue, chest pain, ECG ST-segment depression, a drop in systolic blood pressure or Sa[O.