Haasbroek's dystopian satire Oemkontoe van die nasie (hereafter referred to as Oemkontoe), published in 2001 and set in 2005, South Africa's struggle history is already evoked in the title of the novel: "Oemkontoe" refers to Umkhonto weSizwe, translated as "spear of the nation", which was the military wing of the ANC during the struggle against apartheid.
Although Haasbroek satirises the Afrikaners' obsession with the past, it is never acknowledged in the book that aspects of Afrikaner history are at least partially responsible for the dystopian future that is portrayed.
P van Wyk Louw's epic 1941 poem Raka in the title of his satirical dystopian novel, Raka die roman, published in 2005 and set in 2008.
More recent novels, such as Marlene van Niekerk's Agaat (2004) and Eben Venter's dystopian novel Horrelpoot (2006), are once again inversions of the traditional farm novel.
As his journey progresses, his interaction with history becomes more constructive as he starts to make a connection between the past and the dystopian space he finds himself in.
The critical position, espoused by scholars like Spring and Karier, is colored by dystopian dread, with schools viewed as hegemonic institutions that manipulate the disenfranchised in order to further the interests of the dominant class.
Critics and advocates of public schooling share in essentially the same dystopian fear: that the political opposition will gain control of educational institutions and then manipulate children through pedagogical and curricular practices in order to further a particular agenda.
The dystopian fear that the state is brainwashing the young in an effort to replace the values of the family, church, community, and Constitution has become an important and oft-leveled charge deployed by all sides in a toxic political climate, as evinced by the perceived threat of Obama's back-to-school speech.
5) Richard Kahn revisited Illich's educational ideas in a recent essay and concluded his piece on this bleak and dystopian note: "Terribly, those who know how to subsist well amidst horrible conditions may be the greatest teachers we can learn from in the 21st century.
Dystopian historicizing is present in the literature of both educational and childhood history.