Haasbroek's dystopian satire Oemkontoe van die nasie (hereafter referred to as Oemkontoe), published in 2001 and set in 2005, South Africa's struggle history is already evoked in the title of the novel: "Oemkontoe" refers to Umkhonto weSizwe, translated as "spear of the nation", which was the military wing of the ANC during the struggle against apartheid.
Although Haasbroek satirises the Afrikaners' obsession with the past, it is never acknowledged in the book that aspects of Afrikaner history are at least partially responsible for the dystopian future that is portrayed.
P van Wyk Louw's epic 1941 poem Raka in the title of his satirical dystopian novel, Raka die roman, published in 2005 and set in 2008.
More recent novels, such as Marlene van Niekerk's Agaat (2004) and Eben Venter's dystopian novel Horrelpoot (2006), are once again inversions of the traditional farm novel.
As his journey progresses, his interaction with history becomes more constructive as he starts to make a connection between the past and the dystopian space he finds himself in.
I do not view the representation of the black people as racist, but rather as an expression of the impact of the past on the dystopian future that is depicted in the novel.