even

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even

1. 
a. (of a number) divisible by two
b. characterized or indicated by such a number
2. Maths (of a function) unchanged in value when the sign of the independent variable is changed, as in y = z2
3. even money
a. a bet in which the winnings are the same as the amount staked
b. (as modifier): the even-money favourite

Even

 

(also Lamut), the language of the Evens (Lamut). According to the 1970 census, Even is spoken by approximately 7,000 people along the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk and in neighboring regions. Together with Evenki and Negidal, it belongs to the northern group of the Manchu-Tungus languages. It has three dialect groups: eastern, western, and central. The eastern group includes the Ola dialect, on which the literary language is based.

Even is an agglutinative language in which grammatical relationships are expressed by the addition of suffixes to word stems. The Ola dialect distinguishes 18 consonants and up to 20 vowel phonemes, including ia and ie (phonemes that incorporate a glide whose articulation resembles that of the phoneme’s primary, syllabic, element). Even exhibits palatal and labial vowel harmony. There are 13 nominal (noun) cases and a ramified system of possessive forms, which express personal, reflexive, and alienable possession.

Verbs are classified by conjugational features as verbs of action, verbs of state, and inchoative verbs. There are more than 15 aspects and six voices of the verb, as well as six participial forms, eight forms of adverbial participles, and negative and interrogative verbs. The attribute precedes the modified word and agrees with it in number and case. The vocabulary of the western dialects shows the influence of Yakut and Yukaghir, and the dialects of Kamchatka have undergone the influence of Koriak; Russian words began entering the Even language in the 17th century.

A Latin writing system was devised in 1931 and was used until 1936, when a Cyrillic alphabet was introduced.

REFERENCES

Tsintsius, V. I. Ocherk grammatiki evenskogo (lamutskogo) iazyka, part 1. Leningrad, 1947.
Tsintsius, V. I., and L. D. Rishes. Russko-evenskii slovar’ (s prilozheniem grammaticheskogo ocherka). Moscow, 1952.
Benzing, J. Lamutische Grammatik mit Bibliographie, Sprachproben und Glossar. Wiesbaden, 1955.

E. A. KHELIMSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Neron offre desormais le triste tableau d'un tyran amoureux, lui-meme en prise avec la tyrannie du sentiment : << Narcisse, e'en est fait, Neron est amoureux.
Burlingame reveals his identity to Eben but in doing so casts doubt on the prior existence of the self: "I wished only to assert that all assertions of thee and me, e'en to oneself, are acts of faith, impossible to verify" (140).
Doubtless if ever man was misbegot It is this Stukeley: of a boundless mind, Undaunted spirit, and uncontrolled spleen, Lavish as is the liquid ocean That drops his crowns e'en as the clouds drop rain.
And now I beleive I must come to a close, / For I find I grow stupid e'en while I compose; / If I write any longer my verse will be prose," concludes Mrs.
Earnshaw introduces him into the household he says "you must e'en take it as a gift of God, though it's as dark almost as if it came from the devil" (39).
And now methinks I could e'en chide myself For doating on her beauty, though her death Shall be revenged after no common action.
And well this Golden State shall thrive, if, like Its own Mount Shasta, sovereign law shall lift Itself in purer atmosphere--so high That human feeling, human passion, at its base Shall lie subdued; e'en pity's tears shall on Its summit freeze; to warm it, e'en the sunlight Of deep sympathy shall fail-- Its pure administration shall be like The snow, immaculate upon that mountain's brow
I would e'en take it for sublime, did I not know that the colic is a noisy malady.
E'en in death they yet preserved them, / Twain they died the flag to save.
However, in the Xiru ermuzi [TEXT NOT REPRODUSIBLE IN ASCII] of Nicolas Trigault (Trigault 1626) it is given two readings, a southern one: e'en [ts'en], and a northern-like one: ch'in [ts'in].
Hallow E'en at Oswestry', Notes and Queries, 4th ser.
Forsooth, e'en Macbeth would wait indefinitely for Great Birnam wood to come to high Dunsinane Hill at this rate, although the Bard is woefully vague on H&S regulations in Fife as they might be applicable to Thanes.