The non-EV-D68 enterovirus/rhinoviruses among the control groups included a mixture of coxsackieviruses, echoviruses
, and rhinoviruses; some samples could not be typed.
During 2002-2004, echoviruses
9 and 30 became the predominant serotypes, whereas echoviruses
18 and 13, which prevailed in 2001 (9), were detected rarely.
Second, the data are used to associate trends in enteroviral diseases with circulating serotypes such as viral meningitis--associated hospitalizations during periods of high activity of echoviruses
9 and 30 and lower numbers of these cases for years when group B coxsackieviruses predominate (CDC, unpublished data, 1988-1999).
In the United States, the serotypes most commonly reported to NESS were echoviruses
30, 6, and 7 in 1997, echoviruses
30,9, and 11 in 1998, and echoviruses
11, 16, and 9 in 1999.
Of these, 15 serotypes (coxsackie viruses A9, B2, B3, B4, B5; echoviruses
4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 16, 18, 25, 30; and enterovirus 71) have been reported in each of the 3 years.
Among them, 65 serotypes are known to cause infections in humans, including polioviruses, echoviruses
(E), coxsackieviruses A (CA) and B (CB), and EV types 68-71 (7,8).
Serotypes isolated in early 1990 suggested that echovirus 30, coxsackieviruses A9 and B2, and echoviruses
5 and 6 are likely to be prevalent this year.
Serum samples were tested for antibodies against JE virus, mumps virus, echoviruses
, and coxsackieviruses (3,4,7).
Specific detection of echoviruses
22 and 23 in cell culture supernatants by RT-PCR.
The >100 HEV serotypes comprising echoviruses
(E), coxsackieviruses A (CAV) and B (CBV), polioviruses, and newer enteroviruses (EV) have been grouped into 4 species--HEV-A, HEV-B, HEV-C, and HEV-D--with poliovirus being part of HEV-C.
Of the initial samples, 10 were screened for respiratory syncytial viruses, influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumoviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses
, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses, and bocavirus by multiplex PCR.
Human enteroviruses (HEVs), including HEV71, echoviruses
, and coxsackie viruses A and B (CAV and CBV), are the major pathogens of HFMD (2).