eczema

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eczema

(ĕk`səmə), acute or chronic skin disease characterized by redness, itching, serum-filled blisters, crusting, and scaling. Predisposing factors are familial history of allergic disorders (hay fever, asthma, or eczema) and sensitivity to contact allergens or certain foods. The condition is often irritated by excessive sweating, exposure to extreme heat or cold, and abnormal dryness or oiliness of the skin. Eczema may occur at any age and in both sexes. It is frequently chronic and difficult to treat, and it tends to disappear and recur. Itching can be extreme and severe, and it can often lead to an emotional disturbance. Treatment usually necessitates the avoidance of all unnecessary skin irritation; creams or lotions containing topical immunomodulators, such as tacrolimus (ProTopic and Eladil), or corticosteroids are sometimes helpful. Care should be taken to avoid secondary infections.

Eczema

 

an acute or chronic noncontagious inflammatory disease of the skin, neuroallergic in nature and characterized by various eruptions, a burning sensation, itching, and a tendency to recur. A variety of factors, both external (mechanical, chemical, thermal) and internal (diseases of the liver, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine and nervous systems), are conducive to the development of eczema.

Several forms of eczema are distinguished, depending on the cause, site, and nature of the inflammation. True eczema is marked by a sudden onset; multiple sites of inflammation, including the nails; symmetrical location of the foci, which have indistinct contours; and reddening of the skin in the affected area. Other symptoms are the formation of minute blisters, some of which change into pustules or moist spots (hence the obsolete name “weeping lichen”), and later the formation of scales and crusts.

In microbial eczema (perivulnus), the foci are usually arranged asymmetrically, mainly on the upper and lower limbs, and have sharp, irregular contours. The skin near the lesions is bluish red and thickened and has pustular and other eruptions and purulent and bloody crusts. Reddening of the skin, edema, numerous blisters, nodules, pustules, and weeping spots occur, mainly on the palms, soles, and fingers.

Seborrheic eczema, or dermatitis seborrheica, is localized mainly on the scalp, forehead, and chest, behind the ears, around the nose and lips, in the armpits, in the groin, and around the umbilicus. The scalp is red and dry, with many grayish scales and seropurulent crusts on a moist surface. Reddening, edema, and weeping are quite pronounced, and there may be painful cracks. The trunk has clearly yellowish pink desquamative spots, some with tiny nodules in the center.

Treatment, depending on the cause and form of the eczema, includes the use of sedatives (valerian, tranquilizers), vitamins (B1 B6, C), and desensitizing and other agents. Also advisable are special diets, treatment in health resorts, and the local application of lotions, pastes, ointments, and antipruritic agents.

REFERENCES

Shakhtmeister, I. Ia. Patogenez i lechenle ekzemy i neirodermita. Moscow, 1970.
Kozhnye i venericheskie bolezni, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1975.

I. IA. SHAKHTMEISTER

eczema

[′ek·sə·mə]
(medicine)
Any skin disorder characterized by redness, thickening, oozing from blisters or papules, and occasional formation of fissures and crusts.

eczema

Pathol a skin inflammation with lesions that scale, crust, or ooze a serous fluid, often accompanied by intense itching or burning
References in periodicals archive ?
and since eczema vaccinatum carries a fatality rate of 5-10 percent, therapies that prevent or treat eczema vaccinatum successfully are crucial should the need for mass vaccination against smallpox arise in response to bioterrorism," said Harvard pediatrics professor Dr.
Treatment of eczema vaccinatum with N-methylisatin beta-thiosemicarbazone.
However, the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was recently notified that a child had contracted eczema vaccinatum, a potentially deadly illness that can manifest with a generalized skin rash similar to smallpox, following accidental contact with an open skin lesion on a relative who had recently been vaccinated for smallpox using a live vaccinia virus vaccine.
Because of possible early atopic dermatitis lesions on the infant's cheeks, contact vaccinia infection with increased risk for eczema vaccinatum was considered.
new cases (August 9-December 31) Suspected Probable Confirmed Adverse events ([dagger]) ([section]) ([paragraph]) Eczema vaccinatum -- ** -- -- Fetal vaccinia -- -- -- Generalized vaccinia -- -- -- Inadvertent inoculation, -- -- -- nonocular Ocular vaccinia -- -- -- Progressive vaccinia -- -- -- Erythema multiforme major -- -- -- (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) Myo/pericarditis -- -- -- Postvaccinial encephalitis -- -- -- or encephalomyelitis Pyogenic infection of -- -- -- vaccination site Total no.
In a second part of the study, use of Ceragenix's Barrier Repair Technology will be evaluated as a potential means of pretreating persons at risk for eczema vaccinatum to prevent the development of the disease.
new cases (May 10-June 20) Adverse events Suspected + Probable (ss) Eczema vaccinatum -- ** -- Fetal vaccinia -- -- Generalized vaccinia 1 -- Inadvertent inoculation, nonocular 1 -- Ocular vaccinia -- -- Progressive vaccinia -- -- Erythema multiforme major -- -- (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) Myo/pericarditis 2 2 Post vaccinial encephalitis or -- -- encephalomyelitis Pyogenic infection of vaccination site -- -- No.
During the vaccination program, no cases of eczema vaccinatum, erythema multiforme major, fetal vaccinia, posrvaccinial encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, or progressive vaccinia have been reported (Table 1).
During the vaccination program, no cases of eczema vaccinatum, erythema multiforme major, fetal vaccinia, postvaccinial encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, progressive vaccinia, or pyogenic infection of the vaccination site have been reported (Table 1).
new cases (April 14-18) Adverse events Suspended + Probable (ss) Eczema vaccinatum - ** - Erytherma multiforme major - - (Stevens-Johnson syndrome Fetal vaccinia - - Generalized vaccinia 1 - Inadvertent inoculation (nonocular) 2 - Myocarditis/Pericarditis 1 - Ocular vaccinia - - Postvaccinial encephalitis or - - encephalomyelitis Progressive vaccinia - - Pyogenic infection of vaccination - - site No.
During the vaccination program, no cases of eczema vaccinatum, erythema multiforme major, fetal vaccinia, postvaccinial encephalitis or encephalomyeliris, progressive vaccinia, or pyogenic infection of the vaccination site have been reported (Table 1).
During the vaccination program, no cases of eczema vaccinatum, erythema multiforme major, fetal vaccinia, post-vaccinial encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, progressive vaccinia, or pyogenic infection of the vaccination site have been reported (Table 1).