Further light on this glacial problem is provided by the combined pollen and lake-level record from Lake Frome, which suggests substantial variation in effective precipitation during the height of the glacial period (Bowler 1986; Singh & Luly 1991).
In New Guinea reduced effective precipitation is suggested between c.
In northern Australia effective precipitation was the major influence on landscape features.
In central Australia higher levels of effective precipitation and a more complete vegetation cover are suggested from a cessation of sand dune activity, generally between 8000 and 4000 b.
Based largely on such data, MacPhail (1979) considered that maximum effective precipitation occurred in Tasmania between 8600 and 7000 b.
suggested effective precipitation higher than that of today (Churchill 1968).
Reductions in vegetation canopy cover, lower lake-levels and river flow velocities can be attributed to some decrease in effective precipitation.
Any net decrease in effective precipitation may be accounted for by cooler oceans and a higher degree of continentality.
The data indicate that effective precipitation was lowest for the whole period during all or part of the late glacial throughout the region.
These estimates are in direct conflict with the general belief that temperatures peaked with effective precipitation between c.