Schafer [5] has developed semi-analytical finite strip method for

elastic buckling of cold-formed steel sections.

9] has used this spectrum to analyze plastic collapse load, ultimate strength, shear buckling strength and

elastic buckling strength of corroded plates with irregular surfaces.

11], presented an analytical procedure for the

elastic buckling problems of thin-walled members with variable-thickness cross sections.

In the classical theory of

elastic buckling, the coupling terms of translational displacements and axial rotation are ignored in the regime of small deformation [1-3].

It revealed that the using CFRP to slender sections increases axial capacity, strength-to-weight ratio, and

elastic buckling stress up to 4 times.

i) load corresponding to the

elastic buckling stage (ii) load resisted by tension field action and (iii) load contributed by the flanges.

The shape of the cells and their

elastic buckling and plastic micro mechanisms affect the mechanical behavior of the foam and impose hurdles on the exact determination of mechanical properties.

The design appendix in ASTM F1216 is based upon a classical

elastic buckling theory for an 'infinitely long tube' (L Greater than 4.

In addition to evaluating buckling stress by Southwell's method as just described, we also predicted it using Euler's

elastic buckling equation and Engesser's tangent modulus equation (Timoshenko and Gere 1963).

The

elastic buckling loads obtained from the above mentioned models are listed in Table 1.

e] is minimum global

elastic buckling load determined by:

The topics presented in the text pertain to various aspects of

elastic buckling and inelastic instability, with a detailed analysis of columns, beams, beam- columns, and frames.