But as the rise time of the signal approaches the electrical length
of the via, it becomes important to include greater detail in the model, such as more accurately including the effect of the via return path.
He provides chapters on electrical length
, cable modeling, transmission lines and matching, passive contact probes, cable shielding and crosstalk, and radiated emissions and susceptibility.
Molex Incorporated introduces its MediSpec[TM] High-Density Micro-Ribbon Cables which replace individual primary wires and flexible circuits with ribbonized parallel wires bonded together using fluoropolymer technology into an organized, dense package for ease-of-routing and electrical length
In RF PCB designs, meanders are also used, but most commonly as an inductor to maintain proper electrical length
with a physically shortened antenna.
The system PCI bus bridge device was positioned in the uppermost location to minimize the electrical length
between it and the backplane I/O connector (FIGURE 3).
Pass/fail limits defined in TSB-67 add an extra 10% to the link length specifications to acknowledge accuracy limitation of the electrical length
In addition, the Enhance SplitFire 68 design includes features which provide for true positioning of each conductor in the connector termination area, and equivalent electrical length
contacts, thereby improving skew and signal integrity performance over standard Insulation Displacement Connectors (IDC).
Extreme-performance source-synchronous bus architectures, both with and without data pipelining (where the time between the data bits is shorter than the electrical length
of the bus interconnect), require greater speed and data transfer than their predecessors -- in some cases, bus capacity can exceed 800 mega-transfers per second.
The factor of 2 emerges because the waveform reflected from DUT is delayed by two electrical lengths
, then superimposed back at the TDR output.
Since each pair has a different degree of twist, their electrical lengths
vary and the signaling delays are different.