electronic game


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electronic game,

device or computer programcomputer program,
a series of instructions that a computer can interpret and execute; programs are also called software to distinguish them from hardware, the physical equipment used in data processing.
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 that provides entertainment by challenging a person's eye-hand coordination or mental abilities. Made possible by the development of the microprocessormicroprocessor,
integrated circuit containing the arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry required to interpret and execute instructions from a computer program. When combined with other integrated circuits that provide storage for data and programs, often on a single
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, electronic games are marketed in various formats, such as hand-held one-player models, cartridges or compact discscompact disc
(CD), a small plastic disc used for the storage of digital data. As originally developed for audio systems, the sound signal is sampled at a rate of 44,100 times a second, then each sample is measured and digitally encoded on the 4 3-4 in (12 cm) disc as a series of
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 that are inserted in modules attached to television sets, computer programs run on personal, tablet, or network computers or on smart phones, and freestanding arcade versions. Most of their appeal comes from the computer program that synchronizes flashing lights and a variety of sounds with the movielike animated action portrayed on a graphic display (see computer graphicscomputer graphics,
the transfer of pictorial data into and out of a computer. Using analog-to-digital conversion techniques, a variety of devices—such as curve tracers, digitizers, and light pens—connected to graphic computer terminals, computer-aided design
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). As the technology has advanced from 8-bit microprocessors to ever faster chips with greater graphic and sound capabilities, the programming has kept pace. For example, the newer games have so many levels and twists that they may take more than 100 hours to complete, and the graphic capabilities allow the game player to alter the visual perspective from narrow to panoramic. A game may even superimpose its action on an image of the player's surroundings. The games may be contested among several players, or an individual may engage in a test of skill against the computer. Some Internet-based games, known as massively multiplayer on-line games (MMOGs), involve thousands of individuals interacting with each other in ongoing, open-ended play. In MMOGs and other games, some businesses and individuals earn income through transactions involving virtual products that are used in the game, with such sales forming the bulk of the revenue of a number of game software companies. Game subjects include sports (e.g., baseball and football); action warfare, adventure, and role-playing; casino gambling (e.g., as roulette, poker, and simulated slot machines); and such classics as solitaire, contract bridge, chess, and backgammon. See also virtual realityvirtual reality
(VR) or virtual environment
(VE), computer-generated environment with and within which people can interact. The advantage of VR is that it can immerse people in an environment that would normally be unavailable due to cost, safety, or perception
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.

Bibliography

See S. L. Kent, The Ultimate History of Video Games (2001); M. J. P. Wolf, ed., The Medium of the Video Game (2002); R. DeMaria and J. L. Wilson, High Score!: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games (2d ed. 2003); E. Castronova, Synthetic Worlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games (2005); H. Chaplin and A. Ruby, Smartbomb: The Quest for Art, Entertainment, and Big Bucks in the Videogame Revolution (2005); J. Juul, Half-Real: Video Games between Real Rules and Fictional Worlds (2005); J. Raessens and J. Goldstein, ed., Handbook of Computer Game Studies (2005); T. L. Taylor, Play between Worlds (2006).

References in periodicals archive ?
Watching television appeared to be associated with poorer outcomes more than playing electronic games or using computers.
He noted that electronic games have no counterparts in manufacturing.
The Complaint alleges, among other things, that on February 19, 2010 Electronic Game announced that the Company's independent accounting firm, notified the Company that it had withdrawn its audit opinions for the Company's financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2007 and 2008 because it had become aware of irregularities in the audit confirmation of a bank account represented to the auditors as having been held by Electronic Game Card (UK) Limited ("EGC Ltd"), a wholly owned subsidiary of EGCI that conducts its European operations.
TOYSHOP owners last night feared they'll have to ship back boxes of Millionaire electronic games because Irish fans want Gaybo's voice.
The sector is a high skill and high wage industry with average wages above the national full time earnings average ($57,000 per annum) for most job classifications within the electronic game industry.
Our challenge now is to ensure we continue to provide the greatest racing program, the newest and most popular electronic games of skill and an overall great entertainment experience for our customers.
The fact that many teenagers spend a lot of their time playing electronic games and away from their families makes them more susceptible to exploitation and easy targets for criminal groups.
A recent United Kingdom study used a nationally representative sample of approximately 11,000 5-year-old children to measure time spent watching TV and DVDs, and time playing electronic games.
The lab, which was opened on the sidelines of the first Jordanian business forum, is hoped to help Jordanian youths to developed and design innovative and interactive electronic games.
Some suggested toys and donations include dolls, books, dictionaries, encyclopedias, clothing, board games, sports equipment, wrist watches and electronic games.
The general ban imposed by Greek law makes it completely impossible to provide and supply electronic games equipment and programmes, particularly in public places, or to perform related activities (for example, the installation, repair and maintenance of such equipment and programmes).
Ziff Davis Media Group (New York) and Electronics Boutique (King of Prussia, PA), a specialty retailer of electronic games, have entered into a partnership to co-publish GMR (Gamer) magazine, a monthly consumer video and PC game publication.

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