electrophotographic


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electrophotographic

The printing technique used in laser and LED printers and most copy machines. It uses electrostatic charges, dry ink (toner) and light. A selenium-coated, photoconductive drum is positively charged. Using a laser or LEDs, a negative of the image is beamed onto the drum, cancelling the charge and leaving a positively charged replica of the original image.

A negatively charged toner is attracted to the positive image on the drum, and the toner is then attracted to the paper, also positively charged. The final stage is fusing, which uses heat and pressure, pressure alone or light to cause the toner to permanently adhere to the paper.

Xerography Was Introduced in 1948
In 1938, electrophotography was invented by Chester Carlson in Queens, New York, and his first of 28 patents was issued in 1940. By 1947, Haloid Corporation and Batelle Development Corporation were working with Carlson, and xerography became official in 1948. A huge breakthrough, it replaced the messy liquid ink of the duplicating machines of the day with a dry, granular ink. In Greek, xero means "dry," and graphy means "write."


Electrophotographic Process
Electrostatic charges are used to create a charged light image on the drum. The toner is attracted to the drum and then to the paper.







"Painting" the Drum
The laser printer uses a single light directed by moving mirrors, but there are more lenses and parts than are shown here. The LED printer has a stationary array of thousands of tiny LEDs that are selectively beamed onto the drum.







The Model A - 1949
The first Xerox copier was manually operated, but it provided the experience and revenue to develop the automatic, floor-standing Xerox 914 ten years later. The 914 was a huge success. (Image courtesy of Xerox Corporation.)







The 1938 Experiment Replicated in 1965
With india ink, Carlson wrote "10-22-38 ASTORIA" on a glass slide and rubbed a sulphur-covered zinc plate with a handkerchief to apply an electrostatic charge. He put the slide on the plate, exposed it to light with the room dark, removed the slide and sprinkled lycopodium powder on the plate. He gently blew off the loose powder, and what remained was the first electrophotographic copy. After Xerox became successful, Carlson was showered with honors and wealth. At age 62 in 1968, he died of a stroke on a New York street. (Image courtesy of Xerox Corporation.)
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According to the report, the Global Electrophotographic Printing market has several drivers that are contributing to the growth of the market.
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The advantages of Xeikon electrophotographic digital printing model are:
Over the last few years, there have been a steady flow of launches of better performing electrophotographic presses and other laser equipment by leading operators like Punch Graphix, Oce, Fuji Xerox, Hewlett Packard, Canon and Konica Minolta.
Fujifilm is paying 150 million [pounds sterling] ($264 million) for the inkjet and the electrophotographic activity, almost 2.
Table 41: UK Digital Color Printing Systems Market (2011):Percentage Breakdown of Value9Sales by Product Category -Inkjet Printing Systems and Electrophotographic PrintingSystems 102
21, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK), as part of its ongoing initiatives to help customers broaden their offerings and create new revenue streams, today introduced a family of KODAK PROFESSIONAL ENDURA Electrophotographic Printing (EP) Papers.
In this respect," Pira reports, "traditional print processes such as offset, gravure and flexography currently dominate the higher graphics end of the market, although advances in electrophotographic and inkjet technology will see this dominance eroded over the medium to long term.
Scheduled to be available later this year, the HP T400 is part of a broader production printing portfolio that includes HP Indigo liquid electrophotographic imaging presses.
This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Electrophotographic Marking Supplies in US$ Billion (Sales).
Functional colorants, such as pigments with controlled triboelectric properties, are required in electrophotographic toners.
Price/mix-related revenue declines in Prepress Solutions were essentially offset by revenue growth in Commercial Inkjet Printing, Electrophotographic Printing Solutions, and Business Solutions and Services.