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(āmēgrā`), in French history, a refugee, usually royalist, who fled the French Revolution and took up residence in a foreign land. The émigrés comprised all classes, but were disproportionately drawn from the privileged. Immediately after the fall of the Bastille (1789), the exodus of the princes of the blood began, and successive waves of emigration took place after that date. King Louis XVILouis XVI,
1754–93, king of France (1774–92), third son of the dauphin (Louis) and Marie Josèphe of Saxony, grandson and successor of King Louis XV. In 1770 he married the Austrian archduchess Marie Antoinette.
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 himself tried to flee (1791) France but was arrested at Varennes. Many of the émigrés gathered about Prince Louis Joseph de Condé (see under CondéCondé
, family name of a cadet branch of the French royal house of Bourbon. The name was first borne by Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, 1530–69, Protestant leader and general.
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, family) and the king's brother, the comte d'Artois (later King Charles XCharles X,
1757–1836, king of France (1824–30); brother of King Louis XVI and of King Louis XVIII, whom he succeeded. As comte d'Artois he headed the reactionary faction at the court of Louis XVI.
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), to form a counterrevolutionary army to restore the old regime. In Oct., 1792, the Convention, a Revolutionary national assembly, decreed the confiscation of their property and their perpetual banishment. After 1802, Napoleon permitted the émigrés to return to France, with restrictions. Many rose to power in the empire. With the restoration of the monarchy (1814) the rest of them returned and became a powerful reactionary group opposing the moderate policies of King Louis XVIIILouis XVIII,
1755–1824, king of France (1814–24), brother of King Louis XVI. Known as the comte de Provence, he fled (1791) to Koblenz from the French Revolution and intrigued to bring about foreign intervention against the revolutionaries.
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. The comte d'Artois favored them, and when he ascended the throne (1824) a law was passed indemnifying the nobility for their confiscated estates. This pro-émigré (or, more properly, ultraroyalist) legislation helped to bring about the July Revolution of 1830 against Charles X. The term émigré has subsequently been applied to refugees from any revolution.


See D. Greer, The Incidence of the Emigration during the French Revolution (1951, repr. 1966), M. Weiner, The French Exiles, 1789–1815 (1960).


a person living in enforced exile from his or her native country



a citizen who voluntarily or under compulsion leaves his own country for political, economic, religious, or other reasons to settle in another country.

Emigration does not automatically entail the loss of one’s citizenship; this question is resolved according to the legislation of the émigré’s country of citizenship. Emigrés who have lost their citizenship and have not acquired a new citizenship become stateless persons. Political émigrés generally enjoy the right of asylum. States may permit citizenship to be restored, on easier terms than would otherwise be the case, to émigrés who have lost it. The procedure by which an émigré obtains citizenship in his country of residence is determined by its code of laws.

In capitalist countries in the imperialist period emigration has become widespread among the working people, many of whom have been forced to leave their motherland in search of work. Emigres in this category are placed in a particularly difficult situation: they do not possess all the rights of the citizens of the state in which they live, and they perform, as a rule, especially hard work, for which they receive lower wages than do citizens. They live in worse housing, and many of the social insurance laws and unemployment benefits do not apply to them. The elimination of discrimination against immigrant workers is an important demand of the Communist parties of the capitalist countries.

References in periodicals archive ?
I did no research about middle-European emigrees nor did I do any research on cabaret singers, yet I was told by a singer whom I met months after the publication of the book that I had caught the right atmosphere of the nightclub and had chosen the exact songs which the woman would have sung.
The work exceeds the scope of the novel of development, the novel of exile, as well as the novel of the emigree to reach a new height in diaspora writings.
Zoritch heard that Olga Preobrajenska, the legendary Russian emigree, was taking a few scholarship students.
While on the assignment in 1984, Miller was approached by Svetlana Ogorodnikov, a sexy Russian emigree who moonlighted for the KGB by seducing Americans in sensitive positions.
Pour le 3e jour de competition, le public annabi a eu droit, dans la soiree de dimanche, a [beaucoup moins que] Yema [beaucoup plus grand que], une vision intimiste d'une Algerienne emigree, mise en scene par Sinda Amel Kessab
Il y a alternance de moments d'une grande intensite dramatique avec des pauses oE sont exprimees des emotions fortes la scene d'echange avec la jeune emigree africaine ou la belle scene avec le gardien de nuit interpretee par feu Majd ?
The 1969 collection Gadu gredzeni (Annual Rings) brought the full flowering of "her gift for condensing both emotion and thought to the point - but never beyond - of breaking the poetic form" and a full engagement with the theme of the calling and responsibility of the poet, whom Belsevica sees as "witness of his time, a sleepless sentinel with only the word as his weapon" (in the words of the emigree Latvian poet Astrid Ivask).
Despite a few cinders here and there, Veselova began her Cinderella story as an emigree in a modest basement studio in Canada.
Chi cosi ti ama was translated to five languages including Hungarian, as early as 1965, and some of her subsequent works have also been translated to Hungarian, making her the only Jewish-Hungarian emigree with some name recognition.
Rambert Dance Company was formed in 1926 by the Polish emigree and dancer Marie Rambert, and was known for much of its life as Ballet Rambert before it adopted its present name in 1987 to reflect a more contemporary outlook.
Readers who regard her only as a displaced Czech poet will probably be tempted to focus on "An Emigree on a Greyhound Bus" with its catalogue of familiar names, but I venture to disagree with Willis Barnstone (who wrote the introduction to the collection) that this or other poems of this type deserve to be singled out as exemplary of Volkova's art.
Anna Liceica, for instance, a Romanian emigree who appeared one day in class, did not have the funds for continuous study.