endoderm


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Related to endoderm: mesoderm

endoderm

(ĕn`dədûrm'), in biology, inner layer of tissue formed in the gastrula stage of the developing embryo. At the end of the blastula stage, cells of the embryo are arranged in the form of a hollow ball. Cell movement results in an invagination of the bottom region, or vegetal hemisphere, of the embryo so that it resembles a double-walled cup. The inner layer of the cup is the endoderm; the outer layer is the ectodermectoderm,
layer of cells that covers the surface of an animal embryo after the process of gastrulation has occurred. This outer layer, together with the endoderm, or inner layer, is present in all early embryos.
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; a middle layer, the mesodermmesoderm,
in biology, middle layer of tissue formed in the gastrula stage of the developing embryo. At the end of the blastula stage, cells of the embryo are arranged in the form of a hollow ball.
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, forms from a marginal zone. The endoderm is the germ layer from which are formed the digestive system, many glands, and part of the respiratory system. See embryoembryo
, name for the developing young of an animal or plant. In its widest definition, the embryo is the young from the moment of fertilization until it has become structurally complete and able to survive as a separate organism.
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Endoderm

 

(1) The internal layer of the embryo of multicellular animals in the gastrular stage (the internal germ layer). In the process of development, the endoderm forms the wall of the archenteron, which forms the mucosa of the entire intestine and the glands connected with the intestinal tract, including the liver and pancreas. In fishes, the endoderm forms the swim bladder and the internal gills, while in higher vertebrates it forms the lungs. In chordates, the endoderm and organs formed from it exert an inductive influence on the development of the chordamesoderm and on certain body parts formed from the ectoderm, including the mouth, anus, gill slits, and external gills. In turn, the endoderm and organs formed from it typically require interaction with materials originating from the ectoderm and mesoderm.

(2) The internal layer of the body wall in coelenterates.

endoderm

[′en·dō‚dərm]
(embryology)
The inner, primary germ layer of an animal embryo; sometimes referred to as the hypoblast. Also known as entoderm; hypoblast.
References in periodicals archive ?
With Baetge's formula, researchers can reliably concoct endless dishes of real endoderm in just 2 days.
They've found that the notochord, another area in a developing embryo, instructs a portion of the endoderm, to form a pancreas.
The article concludes that, "Creation of the definitive endoderm lineages from hpSC represents the critical first step toward the development of hpSC-based cellular therapies for diseases of the liver or pancreas.
Next, endoderm cells were instructed to become one those organ cell types, specifically embryonic intestinal cells called a 'hindgut progenitors'.
In addition to defining the anterior and posterior of the embryo, genes apparently help divide the mesoderm, ectoderm, and endoderm into regions that will generate dorsal or ventral structures.
These differentiated cells were immunohistochemically stained with primary antibodies against the antigens specific for different germ layers (a-fetoprotein (1:100) (AFP) for endoderm cells, [alpha]-actin (1:100) for mesoderm cells, Nestin (1:100), [beta]-Tubulin III (1:100) and GFAP (1:100) for ectoderm cells) (all antibodies purchased from Chemicon Co.
Our study demonstrated that both neural stem cells (NSCs) and adipose tissue-derived cells (ADCs) from adult mice expressed genetic pluripotency and could differentiate into the three germ layers, endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm.
They represent a communication between notochordal remnants and the pharyngeal endoderm.
2002), injecting a CdSe/ZnS micelle (PEG-PE and phosphatidylcholine) conjugated with an oligonucleotide into Xenopus embryos, observed QD labeling of all embryonic cell types, including somites, neurons, axonal tracks, ectoderm, neural crest, and endoderm.
Endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm derivatives can be identified in the tumors.
The patent filings cover technology for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into the precursors of numerous endoderm cell types, including pancreatic islet cells.
A Disease Team Research Award and a Transplantation Immunology Award, both from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM), supported the research publication titled, "Tolerance Induction and Reversal of Diabetes in Mice Transplanted with Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Endoderm.