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(cell and molecular biology)
The inner, semifluid portion of the cytoplasm.



in animals and plants, the interior layer of cytoplasm. The endoplasm lies next to the nucleus and contains more organoids and other inclusions than the ectoplasm. The endoplasm is distinctly marked in many protozoans and in some tissue cells, for example, fibroblasts. The cytoplasm is conventionally divided into the ectoplasm and the endoplasm.

References in periodicals archive ?
Rough endoplasmic reticulum is not evenly distributed, only limited and appears as relatively short strand located close to the nucleus and among groups of mitochondria (Fig.
Oncogenic and oncosuppressive signal transduction at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes.
Caption: Super-resolution imaging of the endoplasmic reticulum shows a tangled web of interconnected tubes, not a network of flat sheets.
Previous studies indicated that the activation of ERK or CHOP might result in the damage of podocytes, Anzai et al, proved that the endoplasmic reticulum stress effector, CHOP, could regulate chronic kidney disease-induced vascular calcification [20], Zhang et al, showed that the ERK activation resulted in the RPC6 up-regulation in angiotensin Il-induced podocyte apoptosis [34], Also, Fujita et al, demonstrated that ERK mediated the high-glucose-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular cells [35], In this study, the p-ERK and CHOP expression was up-regulated by the TM treatment in the [MPC.
ATF6 as a transcription activator of the endoplasmic reticulum stress element: thapsigargin stress-induced changes and synergistic interactions with NF-Y and YY1.
The cytoplasm contains numerous mitochondria, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, ribosomes, and dense tubules (Figs.
Abbreviations APOE: Apolipoprotein E APPs: Secreted form of APP CHOP/GADD153: C/EBP homologous protein/ growth arrest and DNA damage induced gene 153 Drp1: Dynamin-1-like protein ERAD: Endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation ERO1[alpha]: ER oxidase 1[alpha] ERS: Endoplasmic reticulum stress FOH: Farnesol GGOH: Geranylgeraniol GRP75: Glucose-regulated protein 75 GRP78/BiP: 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein GSK-3[beta]: Synthase kinase 3 beta [IP.
2000 Tripartite management of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Interrelationship between cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease: Endoplasmic reticulum stress as a mediator of pathogenesis.
Although numerous evidences show multiple possible signaling pathways of quercetin in apoptosis, there is no report to address the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in quercetin-induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells.

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