The rough endoplasmic
reticulum was compactly arranged between vesicular mitochondria.
reticulum is not evenly distributed, only limited and appears as relatively short strand located close to the nucleus and among groups of mitochondria (Fig.
Oncogenic and oncosuppressive signal transduction at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic
Cell death and endoplasmic
reticulum stress: Disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities.
Caption: Super-resolution imaging of the endoplasmic
reticulum shows a tangled web of interconnected tubes, not a network of flat sheets.
Previous studies indicated that the activation of ERK or CHOP might result in the damage of podocytes, Anzai et al, proved that the endoplasmic
reticulum stress effector, CHOP, could regulate chronic kidney disease-induced vascular calcification , Zhang et al, showed that the ERK activation resulted in the RPC6 up-regulation in angiotensin Il-induced podocyte apoptosis , Also, Fujita et al, demonstrated that ERK mediated the high-glucose-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular cells , In this study, the p-ERK and CHOP expression was up-regulated by the TM treatment in the [MPC.
ATF6 as a transcription activator of the endoplasmic
reticulum stress element: thapsigargin stress-induced changes and synergistic interactions with NF-Y and YY1.
The cytoplasm contains numerous mitochondria, smooth and rough endoplasmic
reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, ribosomes, and dense tubules (Figs.
Abbreviations APOE: Apolipoprotein E APPs: Secreted form of APP CHOP/GADD153: C/EBP homologous protein/ growth arrest and DNA damage induced gene 153 Drp1: Dynamin-1-like protein ERAD: Endoplasmic
-reticulum-associated protein degradation ERO1[alpha]: ER oxidase 1[alpha] ERS: Endoplasmic
reticulum stress FOH: Farnesol GGOH: Geranylgeraniol GRP75: Glucose-regulated protein 75 GRP78/BiP: 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein GSK-3[beta]: Synthase kinase 3 beta [IP.
2000 Tripartite management of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic
Interrelationship between cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease: Endoplasmic
reticulum stress as a mediator of pathogenesis.
Although numerous evidences show multiple possible signaling pathways of quercetin in apoptosis, there is no report to address the role of endoplasmic
reticulum (ER) stress in quercetin-induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells.