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1% (N = 22) were ornithophilous, 29% (N = 15) were mellitophilous, 14% (N = 7) were entomophilous, four species (8%) presented intermediate attributes between chiropterophily and ornithophily syndrome, one (2%) species was chiropterophilous and one (2%) species was sphingophilous (Appendix 1).
Although recognized as vital to the reproductive fitness of plants, surprisingly few studies of the reproductive biology of rare entomophilous species (Kevan, 1975; Buchmann and Nabhan, 1996; Kearns and Inouye, 1997; Spira, 2001) and even fewer comparative studies involving pollen limitation as a cause of rarity have been conducted (Sutherland, 1986; Burd, 1994; Larson and Barrett, 2000).
The pollination modes are: An anemophilous, En entomophilous, Hi hydrophilous.
Relationship between flowering time and fruit set of the entomophilous alpine shrub, Rhododendron aureum (Ericaceae), inhabiting snow patches.
Scabiosa columbaria (small scabious, Dipsacaceae) is a gynodioecious, protandrous, entomophilous, short-lived perennial of dry calcareous grasslands.
Flowers and insects: contributions to an account of the ecological relations of the entomophilous flora and the anthophilous insect fauna of the neighborhood of Carlinville, Illinois.
Pacini (1997) suggested that orbicules are absent in species with a strictly entomophilous pollination in which pollenkitt is present, and that they only occur in anemophilous species (without pollenkitt) and entomophilous angiosperms with a non-specific pollination syndrome: <<Only few taxa with a parietal tapetum with a strong entomophilous syndrome, such as the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) and orchids lack Ubisch bodies entirely>> (Pacini & Franchi, 1993: 5).
New species of entomophilous mites family Acaridae (Sarcoptiformes) of Lower Egypt fauna.
Additionally one species (Inga vera) was classified as generalist (species that could be pollinated by more than two pollinator groups, including vertebrate and invertebrate pollinators) and another species (Serjania glutinosa) as entomophilous (species that could be pollinated by species of more than two invertebrate groups).
Nectar and pollen are two of the rewards that plants offer to pollinators, so according to this, entomophilous plants can be divided into three groups: (1) nectariferous, (2) polliniferous and (3) nectariferous-polliniferous.
The fertilization and insect visitors of our earliest entomophilous flowers.
Palms show a great diversity in pollination syndrome but are predominantly entomophilous and beetles-pollinated (Henderson, 1986; Silberbauer, 1990).
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