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see oceanocean,
interconnected mass of saltwater covering 70.78% of the surface of the earth, often called the world ocean. It is subdivided into four (or five) major units that are separated from each other in most cases by the continental masses. See also oceanography.
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in mining, an open excavation in the ground. A trench has a trapezoidal cross section, and its length is many times greater than its width.

Sloping main, or primary, trenches are used in stripping an opencut mine or an individual area of such a mine, and also in establishing a haulage system to link the working levels with the surface. A horizontal, or cross-sectional, trench is designed to establish the initial working front at a bench. In the case of irregular mountain terrain, a trench may have an irregular cross section (hasty trench).

Main trenches are classified on various bases. In terms of their relationship to the contours of the pit, they may be external or internal. They may be of the individual type (providing haulage for a single level), the group type (serving several levels), or the general type (for all working levels in the pit). On the basis of the traffic flow, they are classified as single trenches, with two-way traffic, and paired trenches, with one-way traffic.

The width of a horizontal trench depends on the location of the haulage system and excavation equipment in the horizon being stripped. The depth of a horizontal trench corresponds to the height of the horizon to be stripped. The optimum depth of an inclined main external trench is 50–60 m.

In pits with soft rock, trenches are excavated using multibucket excavators, dragline excavators, or scrapers; single-bucket excavators (trenchers) are used in pits with hard rock. Ejection explosions may be used in digging a trench. If conditions permit, the stripped rock is placed on the surface on one or both sides of the trench; otherwise, it is moved by vehicles to spoil banks.

The rate of excavation of trenches depends largely on the time required for construction of the pit and, in sloped and steeply inclined deposits, also on the productivity of the pit.

Trenches are also used in construction, for the laying of pipelines and cables.



A narrow, straight, elongate, U-shaped valley between two mountain ranges.
A narrow stream-eroded canyon, gulley, or depression with steep sides.
A long, narrow, deep depression of the sea floor, with relatively steep sides. Also known as submarine trench.


2. A housing, 1.
References in periodicals archive ?
Democratic theory is not sufficiently precise to shed light on such narrow institutional issues as the extent to which the branches of a democratic government should be able to entrench their policy choices.
77) Their joint effect is to entrench the supermajority cloture rule against change by any simple majority in subsequent Senates, because a motion to change Rule XXII would itself be considered (by virtue of Rule V) in compliance with Rule XXII's supermajority cloture requirement; similarly, Rule V itself could not be first amended by a simple majority.
The brute fact, one that Kahn cannot quite get around, is that Gramm-Rudman did not entrench itself.
There are a host of good normative reasons for a legislature partially to entrench interpretive rules, reasons of the sort that support entrenchment generally.
The mirror-image case would be an internal legislative rule purporting to entrench a procedure against subsequent statutory change, but we are aware of no real-world examples.
107) As a consequence, the Senate (with the President) can reach beyond its "temporal mandate" and entrench policies against the interest of future majorities.
This makes the case for permitting agency entrenchment both less troubling for critics of entrenchment (because Congress retains its authority) and less important (because agencies cannot entrench themselves very well).